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If I know

H = md5( SECRET_KEY | DATA )

then I can calculate

H' = md5( SECRET_KEY | DATA | DATA' )

That's length-extension attack. But is the opposite possible? E.g. if I know

H = md5( SECRET_KEY | DATA )

can I find

H'' = md5( SECRET_KEY )

where DATA is known and lenght of DATA is known too???

Basically, can I find md5 of the KEY without DATA (once again, DATA is known, H is known, but SECRET_KEY is unknown)?

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  • $\begingroup$ A note: the description of the length-extension attacks omits restrictions on how DATA' must start. $\endgroup$ – fgrieu Sep 19 '12 at 9:39
  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps one might call such an attack a "length-contraction attack"? $\:$ $\endgroup$ – user991 Sep 19 '12 at 11:47
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The short answer is: No, there is no known practical attack in the setup given.

But we do not have an argument/proof that there is not one, and we should be less confident in that than we are in HMAC-MD5, for which we have such an argument.

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    $\begingroup$ It is important to understand that Merkle–Damgård hashes were never designed to resist attacks of this type. Any properties like this that they have are just the result of pure luck. $\endgroup$ – David Schwartz Feb 13 '13 at 12:52
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    $\begingroup$ It would mean we can invert $h \mapsto E_m(h) + h$ where $E$ is the block cipher out of which MD5's compression function is built. This seems unlikely without serious cryptanalytic damage to $E$ (and it would presumably not have a unique answer most of the time). $\endgroup$ – Squeamish Ossifrage Mar 10 at 21:51

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