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FPGA is suited for acceleration of algorithms that can be pipelined, or for network acceleration (in-line processing).

Why is FPGA suited for cryptography / security applications? For example AES, SHA... what features of those workloads makes then adequate for FPGA?

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  • $\begingroup$ Half joking: FPGA is adequate when full-custom is desirable, but one can't afford the NRE and TTM; use a CPU, clever design and coding when even an FPGA can't be afforded. Also: modern x64 CPUs, and increasingly many others, have built-in support for AES, SHA-1, and SHA-256; such CPU will often exceed FPGA performance, almost always so if the bulk of the data flow is from/to that CPU for some reason. $\endgroup$
    – fgrieu
    Aug 26, 2016 at 17:28
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    $\begingroup$ @fgrieu As an answer to your "for some reason", we are basically bus constrained. degnan68k.blogspot.com/2015/04/… If you have a dataflow application, the FPGA wins. If you have data you can cache, the CPU wins. $\endgroup$
    – b degnan
    Aug 26, 2016 at 18:27

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The answer is simple. When you have a job to be done you choose toolkit which would accomplish it in a fastest possible way.CPUs are usually multi-tasked they would be running your OS beside running your cryptographic toolkit. Also, colloquially speaking, FPGA circuits can be designed for partcilar sort of computaion in hardware reaching a far higher efficiency in terms of energy utilization and performace.

So it is not that FPGAs have some special features that CPUs lack. Its just a matter of specialization in circuits construction for a specific task. ex. SHA.

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