Would it be possible to use a block cipher such as CBC in order to encrypt a wireless communication? For example, could I use CBC-MAC, on each block, for encryption for WiFi?
Yes, you can encrypt wireless communication using a block cipher in a specific mode of operation to provide confidentiality. Transport modes also require integrity and authentication to protect against active attacks such as man-in-the-middle attacks.
CBC is however not a block cipher, and neither is CBC-MAC. CBC is a block cipher mode of operation used to provide confidentiality while CBC-MAC is a message authentication code used to provide integrity and authenticity. These constructs use a block cipher such as AES to provide this kind of functionality.
AES (and DES, 3DES, blowfish, Serpent, threefish etc. etc.) are block ciphers. They need to be used with a mode of operation such as CBC to provide confidentiality of messages; they cannot provide such functionality without a mode of operation. A mode of operation also requires an IV or nonce if the key is ever reused. In transport protocols the keys are usually kept for the duration of a session.
WPA2 may use the CCMP which combines AES in CTR (counter) mode for encryption and AES in CBC-MAC mode for integrity and authentication of messages.
Note that the protection of messages is just part of the protocol. Entity authentication and session key establishment require additional cryptographic primitives (a cryptographic primitive is an algorithm such as AES or RSA that is used within a larger scheme).