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I have a question about Modular Arithmetic Cryptography.

How do I calculate $(-5)^{-3}$ or $(-5)^{-4}$ (even or uneven exponent)?

What do I have to do first here ? I can’t ignore the minus?!?

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(-5)^(-x) = (-5)^((-1)*x) = ((-5)^(-1))^x
The above link also has a good "Computation" section.

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  • $\begingroup$ For example i want to Calculate (-5)^-3 mod 19 I have to Calculate (-5)^-1 mod 19 = 15 and then 15^3 mod 19 ? $\endgroup$ – userkir Nov 20 '16 at 16:40
  • $\begingroup$ Yes. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ $\endgroup$ – user991 Nov 20 '16 at 17:17

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