Let $E(\mathbb F_{q^k})$ be an elliptic curve on finite field $\mathbb F_{q^k}$, where $\mathbb F_{q^k}$ is an extension of $\mathbb F_q$ with $k>1$. Let $e: G_1 \times G_2 \rightarrow G_t$ be a bilinear pairing, and $G_1$, $G_2$ are some subgroup of $E(\mathbb F_{q^k})$ of order $r$, where $r| \# E(\mathbb F_q)$ and $r^2 | \# E(\mathbb F_{q^k})$, and $G_t$ is subgroup of order of $\mathbb F^*_{q^k}$.

Is it possible to modify (Weil or Tate) pairing such that the order of $G_t$ be $r^2$? In other word, is it possible to map (with keeping bilinearity property) two $r$-torsion points to a $r^2$-root of unity?


2 Answers 2


No, it is not possible.

By the definition of bilinearity, we have $e( kG, H ) = k \cdot e( G, H )$. If the order of $G$ is $r$ (that is, $rG = 0$, we have $e( rG, H ) = e( 0, H ) = r \cdot e(G, H)$. We know $e(0, H) = 0$ (as bilinear functions maps the identity to the identity), and hence we have $r \cdot e(G, H) = 0$; that is, the order of $e(G, H)$ must be either $r$, or some divisor of $r$.

  • $\begingroup$ A point of order $r$ is $r^2$-torsion. $\endgroup$
    – fkraiem
    Commented Jan 2, 2017 at 6:57
  • $\begingroup$ @fkraiem: while this is true, it is misleading. An elliptic curve point $G$ is an $n$-torsion point iff $nG = 0$. Now, if $G$ is order $r$, then $rG = 0$, and so $r^2 G = r(rG) = 0$, and so $G$ is pedantically an $r^2$-torsion point, however it is also an $r$-torsion point. In any case, the question specifically asked "... that the order of $G_t$ be $r^2$" $\endgroup$
    – poncho
    Commented Jan 2, 2017 at 15:28
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Well the question also specifically asks that the result be "a $r^2$-torsion point", I guess this just shows that OP has no idea what he's talking about, but that was already evident from his previous questions... $\endgroup$
    – fkraiem
    Commented Jan 2, 2017 at 15:45
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ If only we were in a place where we can help those out that don't understand what's going on :-) $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 3, 2017 at 13:01

We can simply obtain a pairing $G_1 \times G_2 \rightarrow G_t$, where the order of $G_1$ and $G_t$ is $r^2$, and the order of $G_2$ is $r$, just by using the Tate pairing.

Definition of Tate pairing is: $t_r: E(\mathbb F_{q^k})[r^2] \times E(\mathbb F_{q^k})/r^2E(\mathbb F_{q^k}) \rightarrow \mathbb F^*_{q^k}/(\mathbb F^*_{q^k})^{r^2}$

by exponentiation the result by $(q^k-1)/{r^2}$, elements of $\mathbb F^*_{q^k}/(\mathbb F^*_{q^k})^{r^2}$ will sends to exact $r^2$-roots of unity.

where $E( \mathbb F_{q^k})[r^2]$ is a group of $r^2$-tortion points, and $r^2E(\mathbb F_{q^k})$ is a coset of points in $E(\mathbb F_{q^k})$ defined by

$r^2E(\mathbb F_{q^k})=\{ [r^2]P : P \in E(\mathbb F_{q^k})\}$

Just by adding $r^2$-tortion points to the element of this coset we can obtain another $r^4-1$ cosets in which the order of elements of them is not equal, but the elements of these cosets is equivalent in $E(\mathbb F_{q^k})/rE(\mathbb F_{q^k})$.

The Idea is that we can choose a $r$-tortion point $Q$ from the equivalence cosets of $E(\mathbb F_{q^k})/rE(\mathbb F_{q^k})$. Then simply simulate a pairing $ e: G_1 \times G_2 \rightarrow G_t$, where the order of $G_1$ and $G_t$ is equal to $r^2$ and the order of $G_2$ is equal to $r$.


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