The equation of an Edwards curve is $x^2 + y^2 = 1 + d x^2 y^2 \,$

The addition formula is $(x_1,y_1) + (x_2,y_2) = \left( \frac{x_1 y_2 + x_2 y_1}{1 + dx_1 x_2 y_1 y_2}, \frac{y_1 y_2 - x_1 x_2}{1 - dx_1 x_2 y_1 y_2} \right) \,$

Why can't you divide by zero when you have a non-square d?

What is the intuitive explanation that $dx_1 x_2 y_1 y_2$ can't be equal to ± 1 when d is a non-square? Because I don't see why you can't have $x_1 x_2 y_1 y_2 = ± \frac{1}{d}$



Both denominators can never be zero if $d$ is not square in $K$.


Let $(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ be on the curve, i.e., $x_i^2+y_i^2=1+dx_i^2y_i^2$. Write $\epsilon=dx_1x_2y_1y_2 \neq 0$ and suppose $\epsilon \in \{-1,1\}$. Then $x_1, x_2, y_1, y_2 \neq 0$ and

\begin{equation} \begin{split} dx_1^2y_1^2(x_2^2+y_2^2) & = dx_1^2y_1^2(1+dx_2^2y_2^2) \\ & = dx_1^2y_1^2 + d^2x_1^2y_1^2x_2^2y_2^2 \\ & = dx_1^2y_1^2 + \epsilon^2 \\ & = 1+dx_1^2y_1^2 \\ & = x_1^2 + y_1^2 \end{split} \end{equation}

Now we need to show that $\epsilon = dx_1x_2y_1y_2 = \pm1$ implies $d$ is a square. For now we have $dx_1^2y_1^2(x_2^2+y_2^2)=x_1^2+y_1^2$. It follows that

\begin{equation} \begin{split} (x_1+\epsilon y_1)^2 &= x_1^2+y_1^2+2\epsilon x_1y_1 \\ & = dx_1^2y_1^2(x_2^2+y_2^2)+2x_1y_1dx_1x_2y_1y_2 \\ &= dx_1^2y_1^2(x_2^2+2x_2y_2+y_2^2) \\ &=dx_1^2y_1^2(x_2+y_2)^2 \end{split} \end{equation}

$x_2+y_2 \neq 0 \rightarrow d=\left(\frac{(x_1+\epsilon y_1)}{x_1y_1(x_2+y_2)}\right)^2 $

$x_2-y_2 \neq 0 \rightarrow d=\left(\frac{(x_1-\epsilon y_1)}{x_1y_1(x_2-y_2)}\right)^2 $

Now if $x_2+y_2 = 0$ and $x_2-y_2=0$, then it follows that $x_2=y_2=0 \rightarrow$ contradiction to the statement we made above ($x_1,x_2,y_1,y_2 \neq 0)$.


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