I would like to know the cryptographic hard problem that is most closely tied to recovering integer $r$ from the modular product $r\times p\mod q$. (This is a simplification of an earlier post that had some errors). It really looks like integer factorization to me; if not, what else would it be?
More specifically, select two prime numbers $p$ and $q$, $q>p$, and a random positive integer $r$, large enough such that $q/p<r<q$. Publish $q$, but keep $p$ and $r$ private. Further, assume there are several instances of $r$ for a given pair of $\langle p, q\rangle$ to work with. Assuming existence of a hardness problem X, such that a polynomial-time solution of X could be reduced to finding either $r$ or $p$ from the integer $$r\times p\mod q$$in polynomial time, what is this problem X?
I am relatively new to this. I looked at a few hard problems; none of the residuosity or discrete logarithmic problems seem to apply, but I'm hesitant to say that it's integer factorization or RSA in case there is some problem with a stronger assumption that fits. I want to get a good characterization of the construct so that I may describe it accurately.
Thanks for your help and patience!