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Assume Alice wants to communicate with Bob. Bob provides his public parameters $(g,n,y)$ with $y=g^x$ where $x$ is his secret key

Now Alice wants to send $m$ to Bob. She generates a random $r$ and computes $u = g^r$ and $c=my^r$ and sends back to Bob $(u,c)$.

You intercept $(g,n,y)$ and $(u,c)$ and you also know what $m$ is.

As far as I know, it is still not possible to recover $r$ from this.

But what happens if Alice sends a second message $(u',c')$ with $u' = g^{r'} = g^{f(r)}$, in other words $r'$ can be easily computed from $r$.

Can you recover $m'$ and/or even $r$ ?

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The answer obviously depends on what $f$ is. However, we can say a few general things.

If $f$ is a "simple" linear function (e.g. $f(r) = kr$ for most constant $k$), you can recover $m'$ easily. You cannot recover $r$ or $r'$.

If $f$ is a more complex function that is bijective or nearly bijective (say SHA-256), then you probably cannot recover $m'$. You cannot recover $r$ or $r'$.

If $f$ is a sufficiently many-to-one function and its inverse image is sufficiently simple (say $f(r) = r \bmod{2^i}$ for a suitable $i$), you may be able to recover $r$ and $r'$.

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