# Statistics on the frequency of usage of RSA key public exponents

Are there any publicly available stats regarding how often are specific public exponents used for RSA keys?

Presumably, 65537 is the most commonly used of them, but I'd like to get some notion of which other values one should care about when testing for compatibility.

• Since I asked this question, I discovered the censys.io project that provides statistics for server certificates. If my queries were correct, 98.7% of RSA certificates use the "65537" exponent, the second place is the "3" with 0.5%. I found that information useful, even though this obviously doesn't give a complete answer (and I personally was in fact more interested about client certificates).
– Max
Sep 29, 2018 at 16:33
• You might want to post that as an answer, even if it's not complete. Oct 28, 2018 at 15:51
• @Max How did you query? And please convert your comment into an answer. Oct 29, 2018 at 20:27
• Taking statistics from one application domain and using them in another is potentially risky, because the public exponent depends mainly on the software used to create the key and the selection of software used to create the key depends on the application the key will be used for. A single popular program making an unconventional choice of exponent can lead to that exponent being quite common in one application while remaining very uncommon in others. May 8, 2019 at 2:22

I couldn't find any references to any statistics, however:

All Fermat primes $${3, 5, 17, 257, 65537, 4294967297, 18446744073709551617, … }$$ could be used while regarding the use a proper padding scheme. There is no known weakness for any short or long public exponent for RSA, as long as the public exponent is "correct" (i.e. relatively prime to p-1 for all primes p which divide the modulus).

So why is $$e = 65537$$ used most commonly?

Using $$e=65537$$ (or higher) in RSA is an extra precaution against a variety of attacks that are possible when bad message padding is used. But it's not too large so that it would greatly impact performance speed ($$e = 3$$ is around 8x faster than $$e = 65537$$).

So in short: $$e = 65537$$ is most commonly used as a comprimise, because it's reasonably fast and secure.