I have done some research about how the DH key exchange is unsafe if an unsafe prime p is used (that is, $p-1$ has a lot of small factors). Many answers here on StackExchange claim that for any factor $r$ where $g^{\frac{p-1}{r}}\neq1$, if given $g$ and $g^x \bmod p$, one can determine the value of $x \bmod r$ in $O(\sqrt{r})$ time (See this and this answer).

The latter of the two answers even includes an outline of a way to do this. However, this requires $A^{\frac{p-1}{r}}$ with $A$ being the public key to be calculated. For a large $A$ and $p$ (say 4096 bits for both) and a small $r$ (8 bits or less), for me this does not seem to be computationally possible. Therefore, I was wondering how one would write a solution to this problem which is possible to execute with finite time and memory.

  • $\begingroup$ By definition if p is prime then all p-1 have a small factor (2) ,) $\endgroup$ – eckes Nov 12 '17 at 6:26

For a large $A$ and $p$ (say 4096 bits for both) and a small $r$ (8 bits or less), for me this does not seem to be computationally possible.

Actually, it's straightforward to compute $A^{\frac{p-1}{r}} \bmod p$; one straightforward way is to use the binary exponentiation algorithm.

If $\frac{p-1}{r} < 2^n$, then this will take no more than $2n$ modular multiplications (and so, in your example, fewer than 8184 modular multiplications); one could do somewhat better, but this is good enough to show that it is practical.

Note: you use those same algorithms to make the computations within DH (computing $g^x \bmod p$ for large $x$) feasible.

Note on the notation (which might be what is confusing you): sometimes, we leave off the $\bmod p$; at those times, we assume that the reader will understand that we are not working in $\mathbb{Z}$, but instead in the field $\mathbb{Z}/p$, and hence the $\bmod p$ operations are implicit. This is similar to how, in other branches of math, you are assumed to know whether we're working in $\mathbb{Z}$ or $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$...

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you very much, this cleared up almost all my questions. However, there is one more thing I am unsure of: if A^(p-1)/r mod p equals 1, then there is no k which would fulfill the equation. What would one do in this case? $\endgroup$ – Lukor Nov 9 '17 at 22:22
  • $\begingroup$ @Lukor: actually, every $k$ would fulfull the equation, as both sides evaluate to one (assuming the original DLog problem had a solution), and so you get $1^k = 1$. Anyways, in that case, you can't deduce anything; the size of the subgroup that $A$ generates does not have $r$ as a factor; you're out of luck; that is, it would appear that whoever picked $A$ knew what they were doing... $\endgroup$ – poncho Nov 9 '17 at 22:28
  • $\begingroup$ in the example I'm working on, there is a factor r for which the left side A^(...) evaluates to one while the right side g^(...) does not. Can there be a reason for that or is that just a mistake in my code? $\endgroup$ – Lukor Nov 9 '17 at 22:32
  • $\begingroup$ @Lukor: you're working on the discrete log problem $g^k = A$? If so, then it's easy; $k = 0 \bmod r$. $\endgroup$ – poncho Nov 9 '17 at 22:59
  • $\begingroup$ okay, I probably have a really simple mistake here, but my situation is this: A mod p is some big number, g is a generator with order p-1, A^(q/r) mod p is 1, g^(q/r) mod p is some other large number $\endgroup$ – Lukor Nov 9 '17 at 23:03

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