How much will we have solutions?
$p, q, r, ..., z$ are distinct odd primes
$b$ is relatively prime to $n$
There exists at least one solution
Then, yes, there will be precisely $2^k$ solutions.
This is straight-forward to show; as we know there exists a solution $x_0$ such that $x_0^2 = b \pmod n$, then this implies that:
$$x_0^2 = b \pmod p$$
$$x_0^2 = b \pmod q$$
$$x_0^2 = b \pmod z$$
We know that the first equation has two solutions modulo $p$; $x_0$ and $-x_0$ (as $b$ is relatively prime to $p$, and hence $x_0 \ne 0 \pmod p$, and $p$ is odd, so $x_0 \ne -x_0 \pmod p$). We also know there cannot be a third (as that would imply a nontrivial factorization of $p$, contradicting the assumption that $p$ was prime).
Similarly, the rest of the equations have 2 solutions; hence using the Chinese Remainder Theorem, there are $2^k$ was to recombine these solutions into an $x$ value that satisfies all these equations (and hence the original one).
We can also show that any value of $x$ not in the set of $2^k$ will not satisfy one of the prime equivalences, and hence cannot satisfy the original, hence we have precisely $2^k$ solutions.