Before today I didn't know the difference between RSA padding for encryption and for signing, I think this answer describes it pretty succinctly, however, I don't know if there is an optimal padding to use or if there are any deficiencies in current paddings I should be wary of (for example, PKCS for RSA encryption).

I came across RSA-FDH and RSASSA-PSS, but don't know if there are any other paddings available for RSA signing or if the ones I mentioned have any known weaknesses/deficiencies.

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    $\begingroup$ Both RSA-FDH and RSASSA-PSS have security proofs. They mostly differ in details (can you construct large-output hashes? do you mind deterministic signatures? Do you need a widely supported scheme?) $\endgroup$ – SEJPM Feb 20 '18 at 17:34

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