# What is the result of encryption if Feistel cipher maps every 16 bit input to 0xFFFF regardless of subkey?

Suppose the F function of a 16 round Feistel cipher mapped every 16-bit input R, regardless of the value of the subkey K[r], to

0xFFFF

What is the result of running an encryption with this cipher?

• Hint: What is the binary representation of 0xFFFF and what does this value do to any value it is XOR'ed into? – SEJPM May 1 '18 at 13:40
• It represents 1, I guess! But I don't know how that can help.... :( – Jonny B May 1 '18 at 15:42
• Just look at a general Feistel Network representation and do one part after another. Replace the general F function with what you described here. Similar question: crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/58364/… – Nova May 1 '18 at 16:31

The Feistel network, for short, does the following:

$R_i = f_i(R_{i-1}) \oplus L_i$

$L_i = R_{i-1}$

Since $f_i(x)$ always returns 0xFFFF (the same of $\{1\}^{16}$).

Making $\{1\}^{16} \oplus x$ where $x$ is 16 bit long, gives you the inverse of $x$, denoted here as $x^{-1}$.

That said you can rewrite the above formula as:

$R_i = L_i^{-1}$

$L_i = R_{i-1}$

Given an input divided into $R_0$ and $L_0$, for the first round you have:

$R_1 = L_0^{-1}$

$L_1 = R_0$

and for the second round:

$R_2 = R_0^{-1}$

$L_2 = L_0^{-1}$

the third:

$R_3 = L_0$

$L_3 = R_0^{-1}$

Now you can easily find a relation (and I leave that as an exercise for the reader) between $S_i$ and $S_{i-1}$ where $S = \{R, L\}$. $\square$