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Let $F$ be a PRF.

The $XOR\text{-hash}$ is defined as:

XOR-hash(k, m):    //m=(a₀, a₁, ..., aᵥ)
    t = 0ⁿ
    for each aᵢ ∈ m:
        t = t ⊕ F(k, aᵢ)
    return t

Suppose an attacker $\mathcal{A}$ can send 3-uples $(m_0, m_1, \delta)$.

A function $f$ will be difference-unpredictable if $\mathcal{A}$ cannot guess a 3-uple such that $f(k,m_0) - f(k,m_1) = \delta \;$ with more than negligible chance.

How can I show that $XOR\text{-hash}$ is difference-unpredictable?


I think the argument relies on the fact that $\oplus$ keep all the bits pseudo-random, so that the difference $d$ will look like a subtraction of two random results, hence the probability of some bit of $d$ match some bit of $\delta$ will be $\small\sim$$0.5$ and the probability of $d = \delta$ would be negligible.

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    $\begingroup$ I assume $m_0$ and $m_1$ must be distinct. $(0 \mathbin\Vert 1, 1 \mathbin\Vert 0, 0)$? $\endgroup$ – Squeamish Ossifrage May 15 '18 at 3:32
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You cannot prove that this is difference unpredictable since it is not. Take $\delta=0$ and set $m_0=(a_0,a_1)$ and $m_1=(a_1,a_0)$.

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  • $\begingroup$ That's true... I was trying to prove it was unpredictable and I forgot to think about a counter-example to show that it could not be proved. $\endgroup$ – Daniel May 15 '18 at 14:56

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