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I want to be able to sign different types of messages with the same asymmetric key. (For completeness, I am using Ed25519 for my signatures).

Why do I want to do this?

The same key is used to sign different types of messages. If I didn't use some method to differentiate between message types, an attacker might be able to ask me to sign one message of one type, and then use it as a message of another type.

Example crude solution

For a quick prototype, I used the following crude method.

To sign a message of type 1:

$\operatorname{Sign}[\text{key}](\text{"type1" }||\text{ message}_1)$

To sign a message of type 2:

$\operatorname{Sign}[\text{key}](\text{"type2" }||\text{ message}_2)$

I have a feeling that this is not the best way to get good separation between message types. This is especially true if one type string is a substring of another type string. I remember for example, that HMAC and hkdf use a more sophisticated mechanism (They don't just concatenate).

I don't want to reinvent the wheel here. Is there a common practice to solve this problem?

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As long as the prefixes type1 type2 etc.. are distinct, of equal size, and consistently inserted before everything signed, what's proposed is perfectly fine, and common practice.


That prefixes are distinct and of equal size is a simple and foolproof (thus good) way to implement the necessary and sufficient requirement: no prefix shall be the start of another prefix.

If for some reason prefixes must be of different size, possible conventions insuring that this requirement is met include:

  • The size in byte of the prefix is before the prefix, on 1 byte (Pascal string convention).
  • A special terminating byte is at the end of all prefixes, and not used elsewhere in a prefix. Common choices include the byte 0x00 (C string convention) or a separator like :
  • Using the hash (SHA-512/256) of distinct string prefixes, as proposed in comment. Since that's constant-size, the requirement boils down to using string prefixes that do not collide, and we do not even know how to make otherwise.

At the upper end of the complexity spectrum: everything signed could be per an appropriate ASN.1 grammar. Watch out for the complexity degenerating into interoperability issues, or even exploitable flaws.

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  • $\begingroup$ If your prefixes do not satisfy these conditions, you can prepend the length of the type you prepend. If you can deviate a tiny bit from Ed25519, you could use something like Keccak's TupleHash to solve it too. $\endgroup$ – Ruben De Smet May 31 '18 at 16:12
  • $\begingroup$ @fgrieu: What if I prepend sha512/256("typestring") in the beginning as a solution for the variable size? Can this be a reasonable solution? $\endgroup$ – real May 31 '18 at 18:53
  • $\begingroup$ @real You could do that, and if anyone broke it then they would almost certainly have a way to find SHA-2 collisions, but surely length("typestring") is easier to compute than sha512/256("typestring")? $\endgroup$ – Squeamish Ossifrage May 31 '18 at 21:02

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