For passwords with sufficient entropy you can use a KBKDF - a key based key derivation function - that allows a non-constant sized input and performs entropy extraction. The extraction of entropy into an intermediate form of a specific size is made explicit in HKDF by a function called HKDF-extract.
HKDF follows the "extract-then-expand" paradigm, where the KDF
logically consists of two modules. The first stage takes the input
keying material and "extracts" from it a fixed-length pseudorandom
key K. The second stage "expands" the key K into several additional
pseudorandom keys (the output of the KDF).
In many applications, the input keying material is not necessarily
distributed uniformly, and the attacker may have some partial
knowledge about it (for example, a Diffie-Hellman value computed by a
key exchange protocol) or even partial control of it (as in some
entropy-gathering applications). Thus, the goal of the "extract"
stage is to "concentrate" the possibly dispersed entropy of the input
keying material into a short, but cryptographically strong,
pseudorandom key. In some applications, the input may already be a
good pseudorandom key; in these cases, the "extract" stage is not
necessary, and the "expand" part can be used alone.
Keys can then be derived from that intermediate state by HKDF-expand, which allows additional input parameters such as in the
info field that may - for instance - include a label identifying the key to receive the output keying material.
Usually the extraction phase is implicit - not explicitly identified; this is for instance the case for other KDF's that rely on hash functions.
In others the extraction is not present; this is for instance the case for many KDF's that rely on block ciphers. Those start off with a symmetric key, which needs to conform to the requirements of symmetric keys that already presume "concentrated" entropy.
HKDF does not require a salt. It does take a salt as parameter but it may be empty. HKDF is significantly strengthened by a salt though, see chapter 3.1 for more information on when / how to apply a salt with HKDF.
The discussion about these principles for HKDF is applicable to many KDF's that may be equally secure within the protocols where they are used. The good thing of HKDF is that the principles are explicitly named and therefore - hopefully - well argued & applied.