I have been reading Fast Secure Two-Party ECDSA Signing by Lindell, and I see that in key generating and signing (pages 9-10, especially visible from Figure 1), only the first party performs a commitment, whereas both parties perform a proof-of-knowledge. I have seen this paradigm also in different two party protocols. Though, I do not quite understand why both parties need to provide zero-knowledge proofs, but only the first party needs to provide a commitment? What's the reason for this?


There is no simple answer in general to this question. In this specific setting, the zero-knowledge proof is needed to extract the discrete log of the value sent by the party and this is needed in the proof. In some other two-party protocols, this isn't needed. So, there's no general answer.

  • $\begingroup$ I see. So, basically it's due to the proof. And I guess why just one party uses a commitment is while you use a fair coin tossing? $\endgroup$ – tinker Oct 17 '18 at 18:22
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    $\begingroup$ Yes. In order to get a coin tossing type of effect we need the commitment, and in order to extract the discrete logs we use the ZKPOK proofs. $\endgroup$ – Yehuda Lindell Oct 17 '18 at 18:31
  • $\begingroup$ Btw, how does it affect security if just one party re-uses its k. What I mean is that assume party A and B sign a message, where party A has k_A, and party B has k_B. Then, party B signs a different message with party C, where B again uses the same randomness it used, so it uses k_B again, and party C of course has its own randomness k_C. So, I assume observing (r_{AB}, s_{AB}) and (r_{BC}, s_{BC}), one cannot break security, right? $\endgroup$ – tinker Oct 18 '18 at 12:28
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    $\begingroup$ If one party reuses its randomness, I am assuming that this is the corrupted party. So, the randomness of the honest party results in a completely fresh random value and so all is fine. $\endgroup$ – Yehuda Lindell Oct 18 '18 at 18:24

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