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good evening guys, let us suppose that elliptic curve is given by the following equation

$y^2=x^3-x+1 \pmod {127}$ on the following table message $9$ is converted to the point on curve

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if i insert directly into equation , we will get

$9^3-9+1=721$ and $721$ mod $127$ gives me 86, so how 91 is given? what is relation between $91$ and $9$ ? please help me

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  • $\begingroup$ You may want to note that there is no $y$ such that $y^2=86\bmod 127$ and as such there's no point with $x=9$ on the curve. Presumably what was done here is that 9 was taken, shifted by 1 decimal digit to the left and then 0,1,2,... was tried for the least significant digit until an x value was found that actually yields a point on the curve. $\endgroup$ – SEJPM Oct 31 '18 at 19:55
  • $\begingroup$ iacis.org/iis/2017/2_iis_2017_103-112.pdf it is here $\endgroup$ – dato datuashvili Oct 31 '18 at 20:07
  • $\begingroup$ @SEJPM could you elaborate a bit more please, how it is done? $\endgroup$ – dato datuashvili Oct 31 '18 at 20:08
  • $\begingroup$ They claim that they use encoding from Mapping an Arbitrary Message to an Elliptic Curve when Defined over GF(2^n ). There are many encodings there. Better to ask the author. $\endgroup$ – kelalaka Oct 31 '18 at 20:29
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After having read the "paper", which is probably just a "publication" the relevant student had to tick off, I'm pretty sure that a standard probabilistic encoding of messages to curve points was used, which is usually attributed to Koblitz. Written algorithmically:

  1. Pick a message $m$ of 1 decimal digit length.
  2. Set $i\gets 0$
  3. Construct $x=m\cdot 10+i$. If $i\geq 10$ return with an error, this has probability around $2^{-10}$.
  4. Compute $y=\sqrt{x^3+ax+b}\bmod p$ where $\sqrt\cdot$ is a modular square root, ie $(\sqrt x\cdot \sqrt x)\bmod p=x$. If no such $y$ exists, set $i\gets i+1$ and go to 3.
  5. return $(x,y)$

Decoding a curve point can then be achieved by finding the decimal representation and cutting the last digit off.

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  • $\begingroup$ Note that this can easily be extended beyond "1 decimal digit" and to use bits / bytes instead of decimal digits and to allow error probabilities of around $2^{-256}$ by sacrificing one byte of message space. $\endgroup$ – SEJPM Oct 31 '18 at 20:36
  • $\begingroup$ I just found that 10 works and saw your post :) $\endgroup$ – kelalaka Oct 31 '18 at 20:37

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