What is the difference between Zero Knowledge Interactive Proof and zero knowledge proof?

Nathan Aw


1 Answer 1


Zero knowledge proof can be divided into interactive zero knowledge proof and non-interactive zero knowledge proof.

Besides, there is already a way to convert from interactive to non-interactive.

  • $\begingroup$ If random oracles exist, the Fiat-Shamir heuristic is secure to convert an interactive proof to a non-interactive proof. $\endgroup$ Nov 15, 2018 at 8:51
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    $\begingroup$ @YoussefElHousni "If random oracles exist" Well, they don't. :) $\endgroup$
    – Maeher
    Nov 15, 2018 at 9:54
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    $\begingroup$ It is NOT true that interactive can be converted to non-interactive. In particular, we know how to construct ZK for all NP from one-way functions only, but we need one-way (or trapdoor) permutations for non-interactive zero-knowledge. (In the random oracle, things are indeed different). $\endgroup$ Nov 15, 2018 at 10:58

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