It's worth pointing out that in the case of SHA2 and most other hashes the compression function has a block cipher (keyed permutation) as its core.
Basically what you are asking is identical to asking how can block ciphers be resistant to known-plaintext attacks and chosen-plaintext attacks (arguably doesn't apply to SHA2 specifically because an attacker doesn't control that aspect) and even related-key attacks in the case of SHA2 (because it uses a Davies-Meyer construction where the attacker has control over what gets fed into the key schedule).
There is no proof that this methodology is reducible to something that is proven secure. It is believed to be secure due to diffusion and confusion properties which as far as is known allow no efficient backtracking. You can think of it as extreme sensitivity-to-initial-conditions in a discrete non-continuous domain.
Edit: The reason I went to block ciphers is because hash security is provably reducible to the security of the core keyed permutation (or even unkeyed if you look at SHA3) - that's how hashes are designed to begin with. Which I believe is the spirit of your inquiry. But the buck stops there, no security proof for those exists.