# What is chain voting?

I read The Three Ballot Voting System by Rivest. This paper-based voting system can be attacked with chain voting. But can't find any description of what "Chain voting" is mentioned in section 4.9.

Would anyone explain what it is?

• Welcome to Cryptography. Could you link your resources by editing your question? – kelalaka Feb 21 '19 at 7:53
• What is "paper-based voting"? Just regular voting with physical paper ballots? If yes then I'm not sure the question as posed is on-topic here. – Maeher Feb 21 '19 at 8:05
• Ok. I will include the source – user10842694 Feb 21 '19 at 8:18

After a small search; it is a vote buying scheme.

Chain voting, a vote buying scheme in which a crook gives the voter a pre-voted ballot, the voter votes that ballot, and then after leaving the polling place, sells his blank ballot to the crook, who votes it and then gives it to the next willing participant.

This is from Douglas W. Jones web page and reference 12 of the Rivest's article points his definition.

This attack is applied in many countries (I'll not give any source). One countermeasure can be paper-based PUF. Also, some ideas from University Voting Systems Competition might be interesting to look at.

• Thanks man. I couldn't find anything related to it. I wonder how you got the source. – user10842694 Feb 21 '19 at 8:43
• Google Douglas W. Jones. Chain voting – kelalaka Feb 21 '19 at 9:04
• France has a long history of voting and voting fraud, leading to a well-thought electoral code (except recent changes for ridiculous electronic voting machines, fortunately contained to few cities). Chain voting is next to impossible because ballots are freely available at the entry of the voting place, plus are sent by mail. Thus if a person is asked to participate in such scheme, s/he can accept, take the money, and still vote as s/he wants with a single serious risk of being caught by the villain: marked ballots. These are scrutinized and discounted, + ballots are destroyed after counting. – fgrieu Feb 26 '19 at 21:23
• @fgrieu Thanks for the nice information. Nice to hear that some country has some solutions. Is there any reference that one can read. – kelalaka Feb 26 '19 at 21:25
• @kelalaka: if you can read french, the law is there, or a few clicks away. If you don't, there remains G. translate. Part of what I describe is L58, complemented by other provisions making it cheap for a candidate/party to supply ballots. Note: If you upvoted my earlier comment, that got lost to a late edit. – fgrieu Feb 26 '19 at 21:39