In their Technical Guideline TR-02102-2 Cryptographic Mechanisms: Recommendations and Key Lengths the BSI is giving minimal key lengths for - e.g. the TLS handshake protocol. All of these are not integers that are a power of two. I always thought, that it was the norm to give key lengths as powers of two. Is it not?

Recommended minimum key lenghts for the TLS handshake protoco


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My guess is that it is stated a round decimal number (e.g. 2000) of bits in order not to disqualify solutions using keys that can be up to the next round binary number (e.g. 2048) of bits, but are occasionally slightly less.

In particular, in RSA, when we make the product of two 1024-bit primes, the result is 2047 or 2048-bit. This scenario happens with some versions of PGP/GPG, and some SSH software. Contrast with FIPS 186-4, which wants 2048-bit moduli to be exactly 2048-bit, and towards that goal generates 1024-bit primes at least $2^{1023.5}$. TR-02102-2 is slightly more lenient, in a way that does not practically compromise security.

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    $\begingroup$ On the subject of "occasionally slightly less," cf. the recent silliness around "64-bit" certificate serial numbers that were really 63 bits. That was an example of a standard specifying an exact power of two, and then when software inevitably went off-by-one (in this case, to preserve the sign bit of a 64-bit integer), it counted as noncompliance-with-the-standard and provoked extreme reactions. If the standard had said "serial numbers must have at least 60 bits," or "100 bits," there'd have been no problem. $\endgroup$ Mar 15, 2019 at 19:44

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