Without factoring it, you can only tell if the number of factors is one, or greater than one.
What you ask is not possible unless at least one of the prime factors of a composite integer is small enough that the integer can be partially factored. If at least one factor is small, then after revealing that prime, a fast primality test could be used on the remaining integer to test if it is still composite and, if it is, you know that there are at least three primes. If, however, all the prime factors are large and random, then you will be unable to determine how many factors there are without completely factoring it.
If you have a large, random number and want to test if it is an RSA modulus or just something random, you can run basic, fast factorization algorithms on it like trial division and Pollard rho. Chances are, for a random integer, there will be at least a few small factors. If you see that one of them is 7 (for example), you can be pretty sure that it's not an RSA modulus, at least not from any sane implementation of RSA.
Edit: You specified a 613-bit integer. That is small enough that it is possible to tell if it is the product of two or three primes. See fgrieu's answer for more details on that. My answer applies only to the generic question about whether or not it's possible to check if an arbitrary integer is the product of two primes.