# Zero knowledge proof with sum

All zero-knowledge protocols I have read so far for discrete log works like this:

1) Prover generate a random number $$r$$, creates a commitment $$t=g^r$$ and sends $$t$$ to the verifier.

2) Verifier generates a random challenge $$c$$ and sends it to the prover.

3) Prover creates a response $$s=r+x*c$$ and sends it to the verifier

My question is: is the security affected in any way if, in step 3, the prover responds with $$s=r+x+c$$?

I don't understand why multiplication $$x*c$$ is used instead of sum $$x+c$$.

• Have you actually tried to use $x+c$? What happens to your security proof then? – fkraiem Jun 25 at 7:20
• $x=s-c$ but that's not the case when you use the random from step 1 – mip Jun 25 at 7:30

Hint: what happens if the prover, instead of sending $$g^r$$ for a random $$r$$ that he knows in the first round, sends instead $$g^{-x}\cdot g^r$$ for a random $$r$$ that he knows?
• Any men-in-the-middle would be able to recover $g^{x}$ and reply to any subsequent challenges. – shumy Jun 27 at 14:57
• This is not the issue here, $g^x$ is public. The point is to see how sending this first flow allows the prover to cheat, I.e., send a last flow that will ne accepted by the verifier, even without knowing $x$. – Geoffroy Couteau Jun 27 at 14:59
• He didn't say it was public. Anyway, the result is the same. It can reply correctly without knowing $x$. I don't want to overlap your answer. – shumy Jun 27 at 15:06
• Right, he did not say it, but it is - his question is based on the classical Schnorr protocol, where the goal is to prove knowledge of the discrete log $x$ of a public group element $g^x$ :) But if you saw why it is possible to successfully answer every challenge here, then you got the solution right. – Geoffroy Couteau Jun 27 at 15:09