If I'm able to extract a watermark from a printed watermarked image, will I be still able to extract the watermark information if I first scan the printed watermark image and reprint it (make a copy of printed watermarked image with high quality scanner and printer)?

  • $\begingroup$ That will depend on the deployed watermark technique. $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Jul 8, 2019 at 17:30
  • $\begingroup$ I'm confused. A watermark is designed to be detectable and/or not easily obfuscated. That's kinda the opposite of steganography isn't it? $\endgroup$
    – Paul Uszak
    Commented Jul 8, 2019 at 20:28

1 Answer 1


Yes it can. But it's very difficult to resist the printing process.

You can find useful information here: http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/isbn9789526200583.pdf

  • $\begingroup$ I've already gone through the pdf. Can you please elaborate it further more "it's very difficult to resist the printing process."! I just want to know whether print-cam robust watermarking technique developed by Anu Pramila makes a printed watermarked image copy-proof or not? $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 9, 2019 at 8:33
  • $\begingroup$ I mean that there are additional problems to those that occur with watermarking in digital images. For example the distortion added by the devices: printer, scanner, etc or the effect of the print material: ink density, lighting conditions ... $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 10, 2019 at 9:44
  • $\begingroup$ So it'll be very difficult to extract watermark from copied watermarked image due to scanning original watermarked image and printing the scanned image, right? @DanielLerch $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 11, 2019 at 10:14
  • $\begingroup$ Yes! and also because you have to align properly the image. This is easier with a scanner but it's hard if you use a camera. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 12, 2019 at 18:11
  • $\begingroup$ READING WATERMARKS WITH A CAMERA PHONE FROM PRINTED IMAGES I am following this paper. Can you tell me whether this watermarking technique can detect the copied watermark printed image or not? As I want to use the watermarking technique described in this paper for product authentication to fight counterfeiting of products. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 22, 2019 at 18:36

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