The stand-alone model and the UC model for simulation-based proofs in multiparty computation differ in the guarantees that they provide: The stand-alone model provides security under sequential composition whereas the UC model provides security under concurrent composition.

It is typically cited that the UC model originated in a paper by Ran Canetti at FOCS 2001. However, I can't find such citation for the stand-alone model.

Which work(s) introduced the stand-alone model?

As far as I understand, MPC in the 80s and 90s was not as formal as it is today, and perhaps this model was used but not formally defined. However, I still would like to know where and when the term was coined, and which works used the concept first (without perhaps naming it).


The standard (stand-alone) definitions were developed over many years, including the original GMW, Beaver, Goldwasser-Levin, and Micali-Rogaway. However, the standard definition used today is by Canetti, and was published in the Journal of Cryptology in 2000. That paper also proved the modular sequential composition theorem. Here is a link to that paper: https://eprint.iacr.org/1998/018.

It is worth nothing that the above paper actually only deals with the honest majority setting. However, the changes needed for a dishonest majority are minor and straightforward, and make no difference to the proof of the modular sequential composition theorem.

  • $\begingroup$ Thank you. Quite unexpected, as I thought Canetti focused only on the UC definition. Can it be said that the "standard definition" used today, which is the one from that paper, coincides with the one presented in your book with Carmit? $\endgroup$
    – Daniel
    Nov 4 '19 at 9:19
  • $\begingroup$ Absolutely. The definition with Carmit is based on that paper and Oded's book (where Oded's book is based on Ran's paper). $\endgroup$ Nov 5 '19 at 11:19
  • $\begingroup$ Excellent! Thank you. $\endgroup$
    – Daniel
    Nov 5 '19 at 13:17

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