# Where was the stand-alone model for simulation-based MPC proposed first?

The stand-alone model and the UC model for simulation-based proofs in multiparty computation differ in the guarantees that they provide: The stand-alone model provides security under sequential composition whereas the UC model provides security under concurrent composition.

It is typically cited that the UC model originated in a paper by Ran Canetti at FOCS 2001. However, I can't find such citation for the stand-alone model.

Which work(s) introduced the stand-alone model?

As far as I understand, MPC in the 80s and 90s was not as formal as it is today, and perhaps this model was used but not formally defined. However, I still would like to know where and when the term was coined, and which works used the concept first (without perhaps naming it).