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Let's say we have 3 parties and each one of them has a different secret number. Every party wants to learn the product of all the 3 numbers without learning about the other inputs.

With the BGW protocol: Can we do this with 3 parties, or do we need 5 parties to do this? I am confused because BGW states that we need $2t+1$ parties to reconstruct the solution, which would be 5.

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  • $\begingroup$ t is the degree of the polynomial that they select. Thus for 3 parties t = 2. Thus 2t+1=5 $\endgroup$
    – macco
    Nov 11, 2019 at 17:15

1 Answer 1

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The BGW protocol has a semi-honest and a malicious version. For semi-honest, a simple honest majority is enough. In that case, 3 parties can run the protocol, with security against one (semi-honest) corrupted party. For malicious adversaries, BGW requires $t < n/3$ meaning that with one corrupted party, you need at least 4 parties; with up to two corrupted parties, you need at least 7 parties.

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  • $\begingroup$ Assuming that there are no corrupted parties, can 3 parties all choose a polynomial of degree 2, so that all 3 parties are needed to reconstruct the solution? Or must they use a polynomial of degree 1, such that any 2 parties can reconstruct the solution? $\endgroup$
    – macco
    Nov 11, 2019 at 19:07
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    $\begingroup$ If there are no corrupted parties then you don't need MPC. Send the inputs to one party and let them just compute the result. $\endgroup$ Nov 11, 2019 at 19:53

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