# Should I assume that all exponent syntax in the description of a Diffie-Hellman-based protocol implies modding?

I am examining the SPAKE2+ protocol introduced in Chapter 9 of a paper called The Twin Diffie-Hellman Problem and Applications. I noticing the use of a lot of syntax that looks like exponents. I am just becoming familiar with the mathematics behind the Diffie-Hellman protocol so forgive my ignorance, but does this imply the use of a modulus or are the exponents literally meant to be exponents alone?

A diagram of the protocol itself is pasted below for convenience: