You have 16 bytes to encrypt in your file. You did not set
-nopad option, therefore, the OpenSSL will use the default padding, PKCS#7. This padding adds characters so that the input is multiple of the block size. If the input is already multiple of the block size then an additional block is added that contains byte
10 16 times. The rule can be simplified as
$$paddingSize=b−(messageLength \bmod b)$$ where $b$ is the block length and padding char is
char(paddingSize). This will make the input 32 bytes and with the ECB mode, the output (ciphertext) will be 32 bytes, too.
Next, you set the option
-base64 this will convert the output to base64. The base64 converted output length can be calculated by formulas. The unpadded base64 output size is $\lceil 4 \cdot n / 3 \rceil$ where $n$ is the number of characters. $\lceil 32*4/3 \rceil = 42$ and this will round up to the multiple of 4 that makes 44 bytes. The below is the hex dump of the output file;
$hexdump -C 2.txt
00000000 33 53 37 53 43 56 33 4b 69 63 2b 38 65 69 4a 39 |3S7SCV3Kic+8eiJ9|
00000010 34 6a 69 77 76 76 58 2f 67 48 45 6d 62 54 38 57 |4jiwvvX/gHEmbT8W|
00000020 6a 4b 55 6c 64 57 51 43 5a 39 51 3d 0a |jKUldWQCZ9Q=.|
The missing $45-44=1$ byte is the
0a character at the end of the ciphertext, it is the line feed character.
Note: Since this is Cryptography, we must say something about the ECB. If there isn't a really special issue to use the ECB, don't use the ECB mode, this is insecure leaks patterns and enables frequency attack. In modern Cryptography we prefer Authenticated Encryption (AE) modes like AES-GCM. To use it with OpenSSL, use
-aes-256-gcm option instead of
-aes-128-ecb. AE modes provide Confidentiality, Integrity, and Authentication. And, your obligation for the AES-GCM, is never using an IV again. Even a single AES-GCM nonce reuse can be catastrophic.