According to the EdDSA specification from the IETF:

For point addition, the following method is recommended. A point (x,y) is represented in extended homogeneous coordinates (X, Y, Z, T), with x = X/Z, y = Y/Z, x * y = T/Z

I'm unfamilar with extended homogeneous coordinates, and I'm used to seeing points as simply (x, y). Can anyone explain where the T and Z variables come from in the specification document?


I found this answer on Stack Overflow that has some great detail:

  • $\begingroup$ Did you see the articles on the page 48? $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Apr 17, 2020 at 15:52
  • $\begingroup$ I did have a look through that section, and especially the "EdwardsPoint" class on page 50, but I couldn't see what the T and Z variables are. $\endgroup$
    – simbro
    Apr 17, 2020 at 15:59

1 Answer 1


Extended homogeneous coordinates are a different form of coordinates that provide particularly fast methods of point addition and point doubling formulas for twisted Edwards curves, introduced in Huseyin Hisil, Kenneth Koon-Ho Wong, Gary Carter, Ed Dawson. Twisted Edwards Curves Revisited, 2008.

$X$ and $Y$ roughly correspond to affine $x$ and $y$, $Z$ comes from regular extended (also called projective) coordinates as a scaling and $T$ is the actually “new” element that contains $X\cdot Y$. In particular, section 3 of the paper by Hisil et al. introduces the extended homogeneous coordinates and how to convert to and from extended homogeneous coordinates.

  • $\begingroup$ That's helpful - thanks xorhash! $\endgroup$
    – simbro
    Apr 17, 2020 at 16:01
  • $\begingroup$ in reading section 3 of that paper, is states that: "an auxiliary coordinate t=xy to represent a point (x,y) on a x2+y2=1+dx2y2 in extended affine coordinates (x,y,t). One can pass to the projective representation using the map (x,y,t)→(x:y:t:1)". So does that mean that Z is always 1, and T is always x * y ? $\endgroup$
    – simbro
    May 15, 2020 at 15:11
  • $\begingroup$ @simbro When going from affine to extended homogeneous, $Z$ is always $1$ and $T$ is always $x\cdot y$, yes. The inverse operation from extended homogeneous $(X:Y:Z:T)$ to affine $(x,y)$ is $x=X\cdot Z$, $y=Y\cdot Z$ and ignore $T$ entirely. $\endgroup$
    – xorhash
    May 15, 2020 at 15:32
  • $\begingroup$ Much appreciated. Like everything else, it's obvious once you get it :-) $\endgroup$
    – simbro
    May 15, 2020 at 15:43
  • $\begingroup$ @simbro Correction, but I can't edit the comment anymore: $x=X\cdot Z^{-1}$ and $y=Y\cdot Z^{-1}$, note that we take the multiplicative inverse of $Z$. $\endgroup$
    – xorhash
    May 15, 2020 at 18:23

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