I have thought up a method for generating random numbers between a client and a server which I hope is fair:

  • The client and server decide on a range in advance, $0$ trough $n-1$.

  • The server generates a $256$ bit random number $m$ (in the range $0$ to $\operatorname{floor}(\frac{2^{256} }{ n}) · n$) and hashes it with SHA-256 to give $m'$. $m'$ is then sent to the client.

  • The client generates a $256$ bit random number $o$ (as above) and sends it to the server.

  • The server can now calculate a fair random number $p = m + o \pmod n$.

  • The server sends $m$ and $p$ to the client.

  • The client can now check $\operatorname{SHA256}(m) = m'$ and $p = o + m \pmod n$.

Am I overlooking anything?

  • $\begingroup$ I think technically the server only needs to send $p$ to the client, since $m$ can be derived (although as stated, the protocol could easily be extended to three or more collaborating parties) $\endgroup$ Commented Apr 25, 2013 at 20:13
  • $\begingroup$ @StephenTouset, the original poster is correct that you need to send $m$ to the client. $p$ is a number in the range $0\ldots n-1$, so it only reveals the value of $m \bmod n$; it does not reveal the full value of $m$. Thus, you need to send the full $m$ as well. In practice, it is enough to send just $m$ (there is no need to send $p$ too, since the client can re-derive it), but that's probably not a big deal in practice. $\endgroup$
    – D.W.
    Commented Apr 27, 2013 at 19:41
  • $\begingroup$ When the client knows $n$, $o$, and $p$ I don't see how the client can't easily reconstruct $m$ when given $p\equiv m + o \pmod{n}$ and $m < n - 1$ $\endgroup$ Commented Apr 28, 2013 at 2:42

1 Answer 1


Yes, your scheme is fine.

Nitpick: I think you mean that your goal is to generate a random number in the range $0\ldots n-1$ (not $0\ldots n$). Also, to avoid bias, you need to generate $m$ as a random number in the range $0 \ldots (\lfloor 2^{256}/n \rfloor \cdot n)-1$ (not $0\ldots \lfloor 2^{256}/n \rfloor \cdot n$).

This problem is known as secure coin flipping, and it has been studied in great depth before. For solutions and analysis, look at the following questions on this site:

  • $\begingroup$ @DavidSchwartz Do you mean $m$? I'm not sure I follow. $\endgroup$ Commented Apr 25, 2013 at 20:18
  • $\begingroup$ @DavidSchwartz, I think the original poster took care of this by choosing $m$ uniformly at random from between 0 and one less than a multiple of $n$. $\endgroup$
    – D.W.
    Commented Apr 25, 2013 at 20:52

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