For why the model assumes adversaries can read the decrypted version of the sectors they can change (meaning they get access to a sector decryption oracle), see SEJPM's answer.
For how adversaries can get read access to data they should not: these things have happened, and history repeats itself. In my teenage, I got access¹ to a business school's timeshare system running ICL's MAXIMOP. When a file was deleted from Basic, that seemed for good. But when you used the Fortran compiler, you could open a file, set its size within quota, then read it from start, and you'd get whatever was on disc, often including your file. I wrote a program that could locate blocks containing a given string, and scavenge nearby ones. The same trick worked on the DEC PDP-11 timeshare system at my engineering school, and was a security issue².
¹ The business school was on the path from home to high school. I walked in, found a student login on the blackboard, and quickly it became my favorite place to compute decimal of π per Machin's method, and do my first implementation of RSA (mod was hard!). Students asked question about their assignment, I answered. I was the guy who knew where the paper rolls for the ASR-33 are, how to feed it, and all about the tape punch. Students, TAs and teachers where happy, and the few questions never went incisive.
² A teacher/sysop found it convenient to have a universal password hard-coded in the login program, allowing him to connect on student (not root) accounts to help them. When editing the source of that program, the previous version was deleted, and the password in clear there. At one stage someone with temporary root access replaced the login program with an executable including another permanent password granting root access. Three aspiring engineers interested in computers can keep such secret, when two are dead. A guy used that method to alter his low marks, that was noticed, and as the president of the computer club I was called in this mess. Some months after, a newspaper (France Soir IIRC) got word of the story, threw ink on paper complete with my first and last name within a 1-letter typo, stating I had obtained a fake diploma from my engineering school by altering my marks. I learned about the article from my grand-father in law, and had to deploy effort to clear up my name in my own family. In the internet age, that would have been much worse. I wear a white hat ever since.