For instance, let's say Bob's phone number is X and Alice has somehow identified that Bob's phone number is X.
Now she doesn't have a direct way to contact Bob, so she wants to post in a public forum with proof that she knows Bob's phone number.
This almost seems impossible since phone numbers are a very limited space and solutions like hashing would not be effective. One possible solution is to have an extremely slow hash (let's say one that takes hour(s) to compute), but this has issues both practically (Bob likely won't bother checking) and theoretically (It's still not difficult for a determined person to find out).
Are there any cryptographic solutions to this, even if they are imperfect? We can assume that there is a period of time after which this information can be made public.
Note: This sounds like something like "proof of knowledge" to me, but since that's not a tag, I'm tagging it as zero-knowledge-proof. Please let me know if this is incorrect.
This was inspired by this but I'm hoping we can get more theoretical answers that answer this specific question.