If we have a set amount of usable characters, but no other restrictions on the potential characters in a completely random fixed length password, we can easily calculate the entropy by doing:




with $c$ being the number of possible characters, and $n$ being the length of the password.

However, when there are restrictions being set on the contents of the random password, this obviously lowers the entropy.

For example, if you have $94$ usable characters, of which $10$ are digits, $26$ are lower case letters, $26$ are upper case letters, and $32$ are special characters.

If there are no other restrictions, this gives us

$\log_2(94^{10}) = 65.5$

which means $65.5$ bits of entropy.

Now, if we have $94$ usable characters and the following restrictions are set:

  • 1 character must be an uppercase letter ($26$ options)
  • 1 character must be a lowercase character ($26$ options)
  • 1 character must be a digit ($10$ options)
  • 1 character must be a special charater ($32$ options)

How do you calculate the entropy for a truly random fixed length password with these restrictions in mind?

  • $\begingroup$ Note that the choice to calculate for a truly random value as well as a fixed length password is done intentionally to limit the scope of the question. $\endgroup$ Jul 10, 2020 at 9:39
  • $\begingroup$ Please see the two useful answers. $\endgroup$
    – kodlu
    Jul 11, 2020 at 23:46

2 Answers 2


It looks like the formula you're using is $\log_2(\textrm{number of possible passwords})$.

You don't explicitly mention a length, so I'll assume 10.

So with those restrictions, let's calculate the number of possible passwords.

Without any restrictions, the total number of possible passwords is $94^{10}$.

Let's count the number of invalid passwords. $(94-26)^{10}$ don't contain an uppercase letter. $(94-26)^{10}$ don't contain a lowercase letter. $(94-32)^{10}$ don't contain a special character. $(94-10)^{10}$ don't contain a digit.

There's overlap in those. For example, $(94-52)^{10}$ contain neither uppercase nor lowercase letters.

Number of invalid passwords = $(94-26)^{10} + (94-26)^{10} + (94-32)^{10} + (94-10)^{10} - \left((94-52)^{10} + (94-58)^{10} + (94-36)^{10} +(94-58)^{10} + (94-36)^{10} + (94-42)^{10}\right) + \left(26^{10} + 26^{10} + 32^{10} + 10^{10}\right)$

This yields $64.81$ bits.

Sanity check:

Ignoring order, The restrictions give $26 \cdot 26 \cdot 10 \cdot 32 \cdot 94^{6}$ possible number of passwords. That's one uppercase, one lowercase, one digit, one special character, and the remaining 6 can be anything. Taking the $\log_2$ of this yields $57.05$ bits.

This is a lower bound. The $65.5$ you mention in the question provides an upper bound. The answer lies inside the bounds as expected.


Using $\log_2(\textrm{number of possible passwords})$ in an $n$ character password, and a $c$ character alphabet containing the restricted characters mentioned, and assuming $n\geq 4,$ so that the restrictions can be satisfied we have $$ \log_2\left[ 26 \binom{n}{1} 26 \binom{n-1}{1} 10 \binom{n-2}{1} 32 \binom{n-3}{1} c^{n-4}\right]= $$ or $$ \log_2\left[ n(n-1)(n-2)(n-3) 26^2\cdot 10 \cdot 32 \cdot c^{n-4}\right] $$ since the number of ways of choosing $k$ positions out of $n$ places is $\binom nk.$

Edit: For your parameters this is approximately 69.350 and is consistent with the bound in the other answer.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Wolframalpha tell me that this is $\approx 72.449$ for $c=94$ and $n=10$ which would be higher than for unrestricted passwords. That can't be the case. $\endgroup$
    – Maeher
    Jul 10, 2020 at 15:12
  • $\begingroup$ Where does the second 10 come from? and how does (n-3) go missing? $\endgroup$
    – Maeher
    Jul 10, 2020 at 15:32

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