We don’t always use power-of-two cyclotomics for RLWE. Many cryptosystems use other cyclotomics, or subfields thereof, or even other fields altogether. For example, many FHE schemes use non-two-power cyclotomics for “packing” and SIMD operations on plaintexts.
However, it is simplest to properly define and use RLWE over two-power cyclotomics, in large part because one can easily avoid using the “codifferent” (fractional) ideal $R^\vee$. (Other associated operations, like the NTT/CRT algorithm, are simpler in the two-power case as well.) So, this is probably why people tend to stick with two-power cyclotomics for RLWE.
The use of fields other than two-power cyclotomics can be justified by theory. The original LPR’10 paper proved the hardness of search-RLWE over any number field (not just cyclotomics), based on the conjectured quantum hardness of worst-case approximate-SVP on ideal lattices in that same number field. It also proved the hardness of decision-RLWE, assuming the hardness of search, for any cyclotomic number field (whether two-power or not); it turns out that this proof also works just as well for arbitrary Galois number fields, e.g., multiquadratics. Later, Peikert—Regev—Stephens-Davidowitz’17 directly proved the hardness of decision-RLWE over any number field (whether Galois or not), based on the same assumption as in the first sentence of this paragraph.
As for whether we can use quadratic fields, all of the above applies equally well for them, but the dimension is so small that worst-case SVP is easy—even on arbitrary lattices, not just ideal lattices. Similarly, RLWE over a quadratic field is trivially easy (except possibly if one used an enormous modulus, but this is not typical).