I'm trying to figure out how to do a mapping between elliptic curve points and Zq without breaking homomorphic properties.

Sorry, I'll write the problem in multiplicative notation because it's easier.

I've got $a = g^bh^r \in \mathbb{G}_1$, where $g$ is a generator of $\mathbb{G}_1$, $h = g^s$ and $r, s, b$ are some values from $Z_q$. I need to have a Pedersen commitment to $g^b$, but since $g^b\in \mathbb{G}_1$ I should map it to $Z_q$ with function $F$ first i.e. $c = G^{F(g^b)}H^R$, where $G,H \in \mathbb{G}_1$ is a commitment key and $R$ is randomly selected from $Z_q$.

The point is, I need to relate $a$ and $c$, so I need to find a mapping function F such that $G^{F(a)} = G^{F(g^b) \cdot F(h^r)}$.

Do you have any idea how to chose $F$ if $\mathbb{G}_1$ is an elliptic curve? Or if it's even possible? In the finite fields, $\bmod q$ would have worked ($q$ is prime). But with points, I'm not sure what to do. Maybe homomorphic hash functions would work, not sure.

  • $\begingroup$ @kelalaka, homomorphic. Thanks, fixed! $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Feb 21, 2021 at 10:25
  • $\begingroup$ When you say $x = y \cdot h^r$ what is $h$ what is $r$ what is $y$, EC has coordinates $(x,y)$ is it $x$ or $y$? $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Feb 21, 2021 at 10:31
  • $\begingroup$ @kelalaka. Maybe I used not the best notations, y and x are not related to EC coordinates. It's just some points on G1. I'll update notations $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Feb 21, 2021 at 10:36
  • $\begingroup$ if you consider scalar multiplication on ECC write as $[k]P$ and if you extract the $x$ coordinate then $x(P)$. $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Feb 21, 2021 at 10:41
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ also, unless $q$ is prime, mod $q$ won’t work $\endgroup$
    – kodlu
    Commented Feb 21, 2021 at 23:20

1 Answer 1


I think that you can use a bilinear pairing map for the function $F$. This map is defined from $G_1 \times G_2$ to $\mu_n$. This means that $F(x)=e(x,T)$ that $T \in G_2$.

The feature of this map is as:



The amount of $\mu_n$ is in $F_{q^k}^*$. There is a map from $F_{q^k}$ to $F_q$ that is called Trace map. You can find more information about this map at "Pairing for beginners" book or http://www.m-hikari.com/ija/ija-2011/ija-21-24-2011/yadavIJA21-24-2011.pdf

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ but aren't \mu_n a cyclic group too? $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Feb 25, 2021 at 14:03
  • $\begingroup$ $\mu_n$ is a cyclic group. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 25, 2021 at 19:33
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks, but I need a mapping to $Z_q$. So one more step in F is missing - map $\mu_n$ to $Z_q$. Do we know anything about $\mu_n$? Can it be any cyclic group of order q, for example, a subgroup of $Z^*_p$? Btw, it's type-3 pairing, right? $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Feb 26, 2021 at 13:51
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Or $\mu_n$ is a group of $n$-th roots of unity in $F^∗_{p^n}$? $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Feb 26, 2021 at 14:14
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry, I cannot accept the answer as it is, because it's incomplete. Can you please edit it before bounty expires? Thanks! $\endgroup$
    – pintor
    Commented Mar 1, 2021 at 9:25

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