Can someone explain me the meaning of 1024 and 768 in Dilithium-1024x768 in the algorithm? And the meaning of 2 in Dilithium2 in the algorithm?


1 Answer 1


1024 and 768 refer to the dimension of the base "generator" matrix $A$, these numbers are multiples of 256, which is the size of the module ring.

If the terminology is a bit confusing so far, then let me explain a little:

  • $A$ is a component of the public key, it's computed from a random seed chosen during key generation. It's also used in signing and verification.

  • Dilithium (along with Kyber, Saber, and some others) uses a "modular" lattice. That is, instead of a polynomial ring, or a matrix of integers, they use a matrix of high-dimension polynomial ring (degree-256 in the case of Dilithium and Kyber, etc.). This greatly improves performance and the scalability of the security level.

Some may question: "didn't document say $(k,l) = (4,4)$ (or $(4,3)$ in earlier versions)?". That's true, and those numbers are referring to when you consider module ring as matrix element. If you expand the ring modules into 256-by-256 matrices, the full matrix will be 1024-by-768. And for those familiar with lattice-reduction attacks, 4 is obviously too small a dimension that can be easily attacked.

As for "2", I'm not certain. Maybe it just refers to the version of Dilithium submitted to NIST in the 2nd round.

  • $\begingroup$ I don't think so. If you see the official documentation $(k,l)$, the dimension of $A$, is (4,4). As for "2", means that Dilithium claimed NIST security level 2. Nonetheless, thanks for the participation. $\endgroup$
    – jmr
    Feb 26, 2021 at 10:12
  • $\begingroup$ @JesúsMolinaRoldán When you multiply 4 by 256 you get 1024, and I said in the 1st paragraph 1024 and 768 are multiples of 256. $\endgroup$
    – DannyNiu
    Feb 26, 2021 at 11:23

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