Suppose that $p$, $q$, and $r$ are distinct $n$-bit primes, we define $$ \begin{array}{rcl} P & = & p \mathbin\Vert q \\ Q & = & q \mathbin\Vert r \\ R & = & r \mathbin\Vert p \end{array} $$ Where $\mathbin\Vert$ means concatenation of two integers. For example $$1165993 \mathbin\Vert 1420831 = 11659931420831$$ We are given $N = P \times Q \times R$ and $P, Q, R \in \mathbb{P}$, that is they are primes too. Can we factor $N$ in polynomial time? I have listed an example for this question too, we know that $$\scriptsize N = P \times Q \times R = 12263640959607413166286548792372138857838409113471105337781351695720741222286495632687410855193016269011718576637693250596988228986909434347895553431945099$$

Can we factor it?

  • $\begingroup$ Could you tell us the origin of this question? What is the size of $p,q,r$? $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Apr 2, 2021 at 20:20
  • $\begingroup$ Note $11659931420831 = 894167 \times 13039993$ $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Apr 2, 2021 at 21:38
  • $\begingroup$ @kelalaka $p, q, r$ are 85-bit primes, and I have constructed $P, Q, R$ from those three primes with concatenation that I defined above. Also these new integers are prime. Please note that $\mathbin\Vert$ just means concatenation, $5\mathbin\Vert7 = 57$, $1\mathbin\Vert1 = 11$, and etc. $\endgroup$
    – Lisbeth
    Commented Apr 3, 2021 at 2:15
  • $\begingroup$ $2^{2n}\cdot P + R - 2^n\cdot Q = (2^{3n}+1)\cdot p$, but I don't see how to use this in a lattice attack. $\endgroup$
    – j.p.
    Commented Apr 3, 2021 at 8:20
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Are you using base 10 or base 2 concatenation here? $\endgroup$
    – SEJPM
    Commented Apr 3, 2021 at 10:44

1 Answer 1


I don't think that we currently know how to exploit such structure.

The set-up immediately makes one think of Coppersmith's method for factoring RSA moduli with some bits of the factors known. This constructs a two-variable integer polynomial with an unusually small integer solution and uses lattice methods to find the solution.

In this case the polynomial $(10^cX+Y)(10^cY+Z)(10^cZ+X)-N$ has the solution $(X,Y,Z)=(p,q,r)$ with $p,q,r\approx N^{1/6}$. However this is a polynomial in three variables which is beyond our current knowledge of Coppersmith's method. The additional information that $p$, $q$ and $r$ are primes (and indeed that $P$, $Q$ and $R$ are primes) is not used by the methods, but I cannot see anyway to exploit this. If there are additional relationships between $p$, $q$ and $r$ that can eliminate on variable, more might be possible.

If you drop the polynomial-time requirement, then your example with $n=85$ can be solved in four hours for less than $100.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ There are papers using trivariate coppersmith for some funny attacks on RSA. Why care about "provable" variants? $\endgroup$
    – Fractalice
    Commented Apr 4, 2021 at 9:35
  • $\begingroup$ @Fractalice The question asks about polynomial time, which I can only really make sense of in the abstract vice pragmatic sense. I'll confess to unfamiliarity with the full literature and there may be a version that does do precisely what is needed. $\endgroup$
    – Daniel S
    Commented Apr 4, 2021 at 9:45
  • $\begingroup$ That is the use of fass here? I don't see that what is written here answers this question at all. It is rather a comment. If you don't solve it why write as an answer instead of comment? $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Apr 4, 2021 at 11:30

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