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I am trying to figure out how to evaluate the security of a hash function. If I have defined a candidate hash function: $$H(x) = α^x\text{ mod }p$$ how do I then evaluate it with respect to collision attacks, second preimage attacks, and preimage attacks? Hope someone can help

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Cryptography.SE. Does the domain is restricted? What did you try up to now? Can you find $x$ and $y$ such that $a^x = x^y$ easily? Hint: Little Fermat! $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    May 19, 2021 at 10:57
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    $\begingroup$ Note that a hash is a particular kind of one-way function, optimized for computational applications. I assume you're trying to construct and evaluate OWFs in the general case? $\endgroup$ May 20, 2021 at 17:21
  • $\begingroup$ I’m voting to close this question because a full description of how to analyze a hash function that is not secure is not needed. Please have a look at the SHA-3 competition to see what you're up against. $\endgroup$
    – Maarten Bodewes
    Jun 1, 2021 at 22:12

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If $x=y \mod \phi(p)$, then $H(x)= H(y)$. Then it doesn't seem collision resistant. For the same reason not second preimage attacks. $H(x + \phi(p))= H(y)$. (If $p$ is prime $\phi(p)=p-1$, thus it's easy to compute it).

About the preimage attack, it's completely equivalent to discrete logarithm in $\mathbb{Z}^{\star}_p$, then you have to be carrefull about the choice of $p$ (basically $p-1$ should have a huge factor).

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