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I have a RSA-4096 public key, a ciphertext, and almost the whole plaintext : there are only a couple dozens bytes missing near the end, or in other terms, I know the range 0-80% + 90-100% of the plaintext. Is there any way to recover those missing bytes ?

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  • $\begingroup$ Is this textbook RSA, or did the encryptor use real (randomized) RSA encryption padding? If the latter, well, you're a bit out of luck... $\endgroup$
    – poncho
    Oct 6 at 19:03
  • $\begingroup$ Sorry, I forgot to clarify about padding. There is none actually, the plaintext is only ~320 bytes long out of 512. $\endgroup$
    – Katoptriss
    Oct 6 at 19:08
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If the encryption exponent is less than one over the proportion of missing plaintext, then you can use Coppersmith's method.

For example, if you are missing bits 3300-3699 of the plaintext, let $t$ be the known plaintext with zeros in places 3300-3699 of the unknown. Then the plaintext is $t+2^{3300}x$ for some unknown number less than $2^{400}$ and the ciphertext is $c(x)=(t+2^{3300}x)^e\pmod N$ where $e$ is the encryption exponent. This can be solved if $x<N^{1/e}$.

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  • $\begingroup$ The encryption exponent indeed meets your criteria. I'll go check this method, then. Thank you ! $\endgroup$
    – Katoptriss
    Oct 6 at 19:11
  • $\begingroup$ I think this is a CTF/HW. Anyway, It should be rather $(t+2^{300}x) < N^{1/e}$ $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Oct 6 at 20:10
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    $\begingroup$ It is soluble if $|x|<N^{1/e}$, but if this is a CTF it’s probably best to leave that as one of many details to be worked out. $\endgroup$
    – Daniel S
    Oct 6 at 20:42

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