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Countless examples all over on implementation of AES. None of these actually make sense to someone with zero cryptographic or advanced mathematical experience.

This => too abstract & technical...

This => is very good and a lot closer, however still too technical & abstract...

Etc.

What I want to see is an actual example with the baby steps of what happens to an ACTUAL plain text with an ACTUAL key going through the ringer. For example, if I'm encrypting "Hello world" with a 128-bit key, what will this look like at least for the first few rounds. Also how about an explanation of what happens when plain texts are small like "Hello world" medium like a sentence and large like a paragraph. I.e. how do strings of different lengths go through the "ringer" differently?

I would take an example of almost any encryption but would prefer AES 128 as it seems simplest from a cursory look.

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  • $\begingroup$ Wow... that was fast. And a beautiful explanation. Thank you very much! $\endgroup$
    – RobbB
    Jan 14, 2022 at 23:03
  • $\begingroup$ Turned the comment into an aswer... $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Jan 15, 2022 at 0:24

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AES stick guide is a nice introduction starting from low level to higher level.

Also, I suggest reading the Rijndael book after that.

  • The Design of Rijndael: The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 2nd edition

    This is the second edition after almost 20 years of the first edition. There is a great deal of everything from math to why did they choose the simple design and wide trial strategy; to analyze the security. It almost covers all the attacks executed on the AES.

    What AES is failed it this AES is not a hermetic cipher since there are a related-key attacks, though doesn't break its security.

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    $\begingroup$ Looks like a good start for a beginner. The "AES stick guide" is fantastic. I wish all programming education took such a road, at least for beginners and those just starting out. $\endgroup$
    – RobbB
    Jan 15, 2022 at 2:35

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