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I'm having difficulty understanding this.

Consider two messages are encrypted using the same cyclic group of order $q$, generator $g$, private key $x$, and random parameter $y$. The attacker knows a plaintext $m_1$ and its corresponding ciphertext $c_1=(r_1,s_1)$.

I was told that, under these circumstances, if an attacker also knows the ciphertext $c_2=(r_2,s_2)$ of another message $m_2$, they can recover $m_2$.

How is this possible? Wouldn't the attacker need to know $q$ and $g$?

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    $\begingroup$ In ElGamal encryption, $g$ and $q$ are assumed public [or/and part of the public key, which is public as it's name implies]. I think the crux of the question is that it is assumed a faulty implementation of ElGamal encryption using a fixed $y$. That question would be better if it contained the definition of ElGamal encryption used, which differs in notation from the one I linked [which uses $(c_1,c_2)$ where the question uses $(r,s)$ ]. That definition will be necessary to answer this question. If it's homework, show what you tried. $\endgroup$
    – fgrieu
    Apr 30, 2022 at 18:04
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    $\begingroup$ Does this answer your question? ElGamal same private and random key attack $\endgroup$ May 3, 2022 at 23:29
  • $\begingroup$ This is cross-posted with math.se $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    May 7, 2022 at 16:23

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I was told that, under these circumstances, if an attacker also knows the ciphertext $c_2=(r_2,s_2)$ of another message $m_2$, they can recover $m_2$.

That's not right; just one plaintext/ciphertext pair doesn't allow decryption of unrelated ciphertexts.

If it did, ElGamal would be insecure; after all, anyone could encrypt a known plaintext with the public key, creating a known plaintext/ciphertext pair. If that was enough to allow them to decrypt, anyone could decrypt.

Perhaps what was meant was that the second ciphertext was $(r_1, s_2)$ (alternatively, that $r_1 = r_2$); in that case, plaintext recovery is possible (and is not hard to work out - you might want to think this through).

One other thing:

Wouldn't the attacker need to know $q$ and $g$?

Those are usually considered system parameters (along with the what the cyclic group is); it is assumed that the attacker knows them

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  • $\begingroup$ Double-check my post. The attacker knows $m_1$, $c_1$, and $c_2$. And yes, the second ciphertext is $\left(r_1,s_2\right)$. $\endgroup$
    – Public IP
    May 1, 2022 at 0:51
  • $\begingroup$ @PublicIP: I double-checked your question; I don't see where you mentioned that $r_1 = r_2$. In any case, my statement that "that case is easy to solve" remains correct (and not that hard to figure out). If you need a hint, well, write out the formula for $s_1, s_2$,,, $\endgroup$
    – poncho
    May 1, 2022 at 2:41

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