Linked Questions

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0answers
238 views

Is a RSA 2048 bits public key secure [duplicate]

I realize servers such as Google, Yahoo, which use RSA has 2048 bits public key. After comparing those keys, I realize that the public keys share a common property, that is first 9 bytes and last 5 ...
1
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0answers
68 views

Minimum length of PKI key for signature [duplicate]

I am looking for data which shows how time it would take to brute force (or crack by any other method) different sizes of RSA/DSA keys used for a digital signature. I am looking to use as small a ...
50
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10answers
13k views

Now that quantum computers have been out for a while, has RSA been cracked?

D-wave systems has released a commercially viable quantum computer. This means in theory, that all asymmetric encryption algorithms — such as RSA — are now useless due to the speed at which quantum ...
44
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4answers
27k views

Security strength of RSA in relation with the modulus size

NIST SP 800-57 §5.6.1 p.62–64 specifies a correspondence between RSA modulus size $n$ and expected security strength $s$ in bits: ...
27
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2answers
44k views

How much computing resource is required to brute-force RSA?

It's been over 30 years since Rivest, Shamir and Adleman first publicly described their algorithm for public-key cryptography; and the intelligence community is thought to have known about it for ...
7
votes
1answer
9k views

Should I use RSA encryption since RSA is said to be broken by NSA?

I am developing a simple web app that uses asymmetric encryption, but I am not sure whether to chose RSA for the reasons mentioned above. What are your suggestions? Also if I decided to go with RSA ...
7
votes
4answers
11k views

Is 512-bit RSA still safe for signature generation?

The standard CSP on Windows XP only supports RSA up to 512-bit, which means that it's the maximum key size I can use for authenticity verification of updates. The public key is embedded in the updater,...
12
votes
1answer
26k views

How much stronger is RSA-2048 compared to RSA-1024?

How much stronger is RSA-2048 compared to RSA-1024? It is hard to imagine very big numbers. So what would be your way to explain the difference to someone who doesn't know much about cryptography?
21
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1answer
9k views

What is the history of recommended RSA key sizes?

One can find up to date recommended key sizes for RSA at NIST sp800-131A for example. In short, it suggests a key size of at least 2048 bits. Is it possible to find a history of recommended key sizes ...
5
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2answers
21k views

What is the largest bit RSA encryption to be cracked?

This article shows a 4096 bit key being cracked by using a microphone and listening to your computer's cpu. I do not know if this is true at all. I am doing a presentation on RSA Security and I ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Are there any signature schemes for underpowered devices (8-bit microcontroller)?

I am currently researching into a small scale home automation system, aiming for cost. The system architecture is basically one master and several slaves which are connected in parallel. Recently i'...
11
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2answers
3k views

Should RSA primes p and q differ in length by "a few digits"?

When generating RSA keys in the original RSA paper it is stated: to gain additional protection against sophisticated factoring algorithms, p and q should differ in length by a few digits Why is ...
3
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2answers
8k views

How exactly are public and private keys used to encrypt and the decrypt data?

In asymmetric encryption schemes, a public key is used by an outside source to encrypt data to be sent to the holder of the private key. It's my understanding that public keys are generated from the ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Could a fixed RSA encryption be used instead of a salt to prevent rainbow table attacks?

It's common to use a salt before hashing a password in order to prevent an attack by rainbow tables. Would it also work to encrypt the password for instance by RSA encryption - by a permanent RSA ...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

When was the RSA 64-bit key introduced into internet encryption?

When (if ever) was a key length of 64 bits used in "internet encryption" and when was that "cryptographic standard" first introduced? Following up, when did "internet encryption" key lengths change ...
1
vote
1answer
8k views

How long to bruteforce a RSA key [duplicate]

Suppose I have a 2048 bit RSA public key, and want to brute force the corresponding private key. I guess there are 2048^16 possible combinations? How long would this take me to brute force with an i7,...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

RSA time function

I am doing a paper on textbook RSA (highschool-level). I am explaining and proving the significance of the public key exponent in time and security. So far, I have encrypted a constant message with a ...
21
votes
1answer
1k views

Security of RSA for paranoids with padding?

RSA for Paranoids (RSAP) (in CryptoBytes v1n3), also known as Unbalanced RSA, is a variant of RSA proposed in 1995 by Adi Shamir, as a mean to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why are recomended RSA key lengths so high? [duplicate]

I was checking for authoritative sources to back up my recommendation of a minimum RSA key length of 1024 and was shocked to find that NIST 800-56Br1 and FIPS 186-4 both recommend at least 2048 bits ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Prime factorization of 700 decimal digits number

I'm a newbie to encryption. If I create a number 'n' as a product of two prime numbers 'p' and 'q' with the following specifications: 'p' is a fully random prime with 300 decimal digits in length. 'q'...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Practical Attack on RSA

Currently I am designing an RSA based application, and I am thinking of how long should the key be in order to be secure against attacks. I know that RSA 4096 bit key can be recovered using Sound ...
0
votes
3answers
1k views

Sign MD5 hash with RSA [duplicate]

I have to hash a message with MD5, digitally sign it, and then verify. I have looked around, but I can't find a step-by-step example. I understand how RSA works when a message is given as number (not ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How should I address message size limits in RSA encryption?

I am making an end-to-end encryption software program in Java using RSA. I am using BigIntegers and its number theory methods. (I know this is a very slow approach, but I just want to learn to the ...
3
votes
2answers
566 views

Distributed integer factorization?

I'm looking around for publicly published work on factorization of large numbers using distributed systems of any kind. So far I've come across the PDF "Mapreduce for integer factorization" by Javier ...
1
vote
1answer
433 views

80-bit security and attack time

Many designer claimed that their cryptography scheme has 80-bit security. So how to calculate the time of attcking this 80-bit security cryptography scheme, such as 80-bit security RSA using a kind of ...
1
vote
1answer
847 views

RSA finding p and q integer with condition

I'm given $N=p\,q$ and told that $44\,p\approx 17\,q$ (with the value given for $N$ some 49-digit integer 8124642558124642555899928124642555899924479992447). In ...
2
votes
1answer
847 views

Small Encryption Exponent

I am trying to crack an unpadded RSA set up for a homework. I have public key (R,e) and encrypted message E. ...
-1
votes
2answers
645 views

Rsa encryption security

What tool is used to measure the security of rsa encryption? If no, is there any tool to measure rsa encryption in terms of security. Or any idea how to measure security of rsa encryption?
2
votes
1answer
611 views

Is Shoup's Practical Threshold Signatures considered secure?

I am planning to use threshold cryptography in a Java application. So far, I have only found ThresSig and a ECDSA implementation used in TwoFactorBtcWallet. However, ThresSig is based on a 15-years ...
2
votes
2answers
200 views

Actual RSA encryption & decryption of strings?

$K_{pub} = (n, e)$ $K_{pvt} = d$ Then $E_{K_{pub}}(x) \equiv x^e \mod n$ Practically, when RSA is used to encrypt strings, what is the $x$ here? You cannot take it byte by byte because $\mod n$ will ...
4
votes
2answers
156 views

RSA - Is $e = d$ a problem?

I'm working on small RSA project in university. At this moment I have done this: An array of prime numbers is generated from selected range. $p$ and $q$ selected randomly from this array $n$ ...
0
votes
2answers
143 views

Is an efficient integer factorisation algorithm a threat to security anymore?

Nowadays, private key systems like AES have replaced RSA. Even for digital signatures, people mostly use ECC, so even if an efficient integer factorization algorithm is made, would it be a threat to ...
2
votes
1answer
175 views

Highest prime factor that is Safe for a particular scheme

My question is how many bits of prime number is secure so that it cannot be factored from very large number? Until today how large prime factor is found in large number? Quantum computing find ...
2
votes
3answers
199 views

Factoring Anderson's RSA backdoor

In 1993, Anderson [1] proposed a backdoor to the RSA key generation algorithm. This backdoor requires that a backdoor key (prime) $A$ be implanted within the key generation portion of the RSA ...
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votes
1answer
98 views

3 digit code at the end of a changing magstripe (maybe hash?) [closed]

Myself and some fellow students are doing some "Independent Security Research" on campus and trying to crack the campus paid parking system to better understand how it might work. The system works ...
0
votes
0answers
195 views

Parameters and key dimension for DH and RSA

I studied RSA and Diffie-Hellman key exchange from a quite old book (Discrete Mathematics by Berardi, Beutelspacher) and so I wonder if the recommended dimensions for the prime p and the secret ...
0
votes
1answer
111 views

Reducing a 64 digit integer to 10 digit

Situation:- I am using Python. I am using RSA and I am using two 64 bit keys. I am not an cryptographer . I can provide you the RSA code if needed but i am not posting it as it doesn't have to do ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Which RSA keys are actually attacked In practice?

I understand that it is important to check how hard it is to attack RSA keys, but I assume at some key size attackers would not even try. Real attacks are carried out by exploiting mistakes in the ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Can we sign and encrypt with RSA keys of both sender and receiver?

By using RSA encryption, it is possible to "encrypt" sign with sender's private key and then with receiver's public key, and decrypt with receiver's private key and then with sender's public ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

What would be the most recommended AES && RSA Keys for production?

While I am a front-end developer and not a security expert programmer, I am worry about the keys I am using for my AES && RSA encryption. Please help me to understand: Is the following keys ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

How to factorize the group order in Pohlig-Hellman algorithm

The Pohlig-Hellman algorithm is for computing discrete logarithms in a group whose order is a smooth integer. This algorithm requires the factorization of the group order. However we know that ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Is digital signature without schema possible?

In my application I want to use Rabin crypto system with short keys (like 128 bits) and MD5 for hashing. I found that schema like PKCS1-V1_5 or PPS does not allow you to have such small keys and ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

How does RSA encrypt a message? Are the message packets chained together?

This question is quite related to this one, but I am looking for more details. I am writing a very basic implementation to demonstrate how RSA works. My current implementation generates key pairs ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Choosing a suitable prime for accumulators

I am trying to work out accumulators and generate $S = \{ e_1,e_2 \ldots, e_n \} $ from this (Section 3.4 - Choosing a Suitable Prime). For each element of $e_i$ compute its representation $x_i$.(This ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Paillier estimate attack costs on short keys

I was thinking about how to use the homeomorphic property of that cryptosystem to achieve not a "semantic security" but a less ambitous obfuscation of the source code (an ipotetical scenario ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Will a list of all prime numbers upto certain number of bits compromise crytopgraphic algorithms based on prime factorization? [duplicate]

I understand that many cryptographic algorithms depend on the difficulty of large prime factorization. Will a list of all prime numbers upto certain number of bits make it easy for an attacker to ...