Linked Questions

8
votes
1answer
28k views

Multiplication/Division in Galois Field (2^8)

I'm attempting to implement multiplication and division in $GF(2^8)$ using log and exponential tables. I'm using the exponent of 3 as my generator, using instructions from here. However I'm having ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme - prime security?

Does the prime (which needs to be larger than the message) have to be chosen randomly for security, or can it just be a huge constant? Also, the Wikipedia article for SSSS states The size of each ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

How are these AES MixColumn multiplication tables calculated?

I'm using the mul2, mul3, mul9, mul11, mul13 and mul14 tables for the MixColumn and InvMixColumn steps in AES-128. However, I got these off some Github repository, and now I'm looking for an actual ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

How to generate a random polynomial of degree $m$?

I am trying to do a homework in which implement a variation of this paper and I don't know how to generate a polynomial of degree $m-1$. This polynomial is used to generate the $y_0$ and $y_1$ values. ...
1
vote
1answer
4k views

Multiplicative Inverse in AES [duplicate]

I want to calculate the S-box for AES. But I have a problem with the multiplicative inverse step. For example, the inverse of 95 is ...
1
vote
3answers
3k views

How to do Hexadecimal multiplication in GF(2^8)

I'm trying to do a hexadecimal multiplication in GF(2^8). Now, I know the technique of shifting left the binary numbers in some cases, for example: 02 * 9E 0000 0010 * 1001 1110 you shift one time ...
1
vote
2answers
145 views

Does GHASH use XOR or addition?

I've been looking into GHASH and some sites describe it as a polynomial: A1*(H* *M-1)+A2*(H* *M-2)...C1*H(H* *M-N)+C2*H(H* *(M-N-1))...+len(A||C)*H+E(0)=t while ...
3
votes
1answer
396 views

Galois field step in XEX mode

I'm reading through the XEX mode spec, and I want to make sure I've understood the $\alpha^j$ step correctly: $X = E_K(I) \oplus \alpha^j$ $C = E_K(M \oplus X) \oplus X$ where: $M$ is the ...
1
vote
1answer
589 views

What is the inverse function of the finite field GF($2^3$) and GF($2^4$)?

I am currently reading a paper Cryptanalysis of a Theorem Decomposing the Only Known Solution to the Big APN Problem. In this paper, they mention that they used $I$ which is the inverse of the finite ...
2
votes
1answer
579 views

How are Rijndael's S-Boxes generated?

Wikipedia: Rijndael's Forward S-box I'm writing C Code to generate S-boxes but I'm stuck. Would you mind explaining one entry of the S-box? (say for x = 0x2). ...
2
votes
1answer
300 views

XEX mode - how to perturb the tweak

The first part of the classical description of XEX is $X = E_{k}(I) \otimes \alpha^j$ What I see a lot in sample code on the Internet is that you start with $T_ = E_{k}(I)$ and use that for the ...
1
vote
1answer
330 views

Prime fields vs non-prime fields

I was watching this class about AES in this LINK and I was trying to grasp the concept of prime fields, which is a finite field with prime order $p$. The non-prime field part (order is $p^n$) is ...
1
vote
0answers
298 views

How to find multiplicative inverse of a hexadecimal number in the finite field GF(2^8)? [duplicate]

I am new to cryptography. As I was reading a note regarding S-box construction, I found a step mentioning multiplicative inverse of a number in the finite field GF(2^8). I couldn't understand it!! Can ...