Linked Questions

36
votes
3answers
7k views

Does "Shattered" actually show SHA-1-signed certificates are "unsafe"?

Note: I am not advocating anyone continues using SHA1-signed certificates: they are dead as far as security is concerned and should no longer be used. I'm just trying to clarify my understanding of ...
12
votes
3answers
10k views

Has AES-128 been fully broken?

Has AES-128 been broken over the full 10 rounds? If so, by what means? By a commercial entity? By a supercomputer? If not, why is AES-256 used to replace AES-128 so frequently?
17
votes
3answers
11k views

After Google's collision attack, is RSA-SHA1 signature still safe?

Google succeeded to get a collision in SHA-1 last year in an attack called shattered. Does this fact make certificates based RSA-SHA1 Signature risky for creating fraud certificates? If RSA-SHA1 ...
7
votes
3answers
9k views

Is it possible to find the key for AES ECB if I have a list of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext?

Assume I have a list of plaintext text and its corresponding ciphertext which was created using a specific key with AES in ECB mode. Can I recover that key? If, how big does the list of plaintext ...
16
votes
1answer
11k views

In 2020, SHA-1 practically broken in chosen-prefix collision (CP-collision). Can double SHA-1 hashing prevent CP-collision?

In a recent study SHA-1 is a Shambles - First Chosen-Prefix Collision on SHA-1 and Application to the PGP Web of Trust by Gaëtan Leurent and Thomas Peyrin. 2020, they showed the first practical chosen-...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

Argon2 for both password storage and key derivation

Is using Argon2 for both password storage and key derivation secure? I'm planning on using different salt values, of course. The basic concept is something like this: Alice has some secret data ($...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Is it hypocritical to use AES-256 and RSA 2048 in the same application?

I see a common claim that AES-256 is the gold standard and is good future proofing, often in the same wind as "just use 2048-bit keys for RSA". Security documents seem to recommend both AES-256 and ...
4
votes
1answer
985 views

Is Mega.nz encryption vulnerable to brute force cracking by quantum computers?

I am interested in Mega.nz cloud storage. It is using end-to-end encryption. It says that it uses AES-128 to encrypt files And there are more details in their white paper But I saw that quantum ...
6
votes
2answers
579 views

SHA-512 - How difficult is it to find a hash digest beginning with at least twelve zeros?

I know it's possible to find a hash value with multiple zeroes in it, I know of some BitCoin hashes with it, but how difficult is it to find/create a hash digest with 12 or more leading hex zeroes in ...
2
votes
3answers
507 views

3DES security when K1=K3

I am mainly looking for security on 2-key $\operatorname{3DES}$ implementation where $K_1=K_3$. How hard or easy is it to crack $\operatorname{3DES}$ when $K_1=K_3$?
7
votes
4answers
377 views

Can I replace SHA-1 with SHA-512/160 to address Shambles?

The destination is software (within a remote trust boundary) that expects SHA-1 results. Would it be safer for the source (that's within my own trust boundary) to replace my SHA-1 computation at my ...
1
vote
5answers
453 views

Is it theoretically possible to create an unbreakable cipher?

I know this question might sound strange, but is it theoretically possible to create an unbreakable cipher if we don't consider bruteforce? Some of us believe that it is possible to create ciphers and ...
1
vote
2answers
259 views

80-bit vs 128-bit security in today's world

In today's world of applications, I see a lot of the time a 256-bit encryption key is used, but what about an 80 or 128? What makes 256 the one to use. Is a 80 or 128 easily decrypted? Are comp ...
1
vote
2answers
407 views

Recovery Passphrase Collission for BIP-39 and BIP-44

Referring to the standards of [BIP-39] and [BIP-44]: a 'master password' consisting of 12 words uniformly selected from a 2048-word dictionary corresponds to 128 bits of entropy, that is then used as ...
4
votes
1answer
680 views

Worth taking performance hit of HMAC to gain additional security?

It seems like SHA-512 truncated to 256 bits is usable as a MAC [1]. The advantage is that it's ~50% faster than HMAC-SHA-256 on 64-bit CPUs and ~50% faster than HMAC-SHA-512 on short inputs. (My use ...
1
vote
1answer
433 views

80-bit security and attack time

Many designer claimed that their cryptography scheme has 80-bit security. So how to calculate the time of attcking this 80-bit security cryptography scheme, such as 80-bit security RSA using a kind of ...
2
votes
1answer
798 views

How long would it take to brute force a 32 or 16 bit integer and which type of processor would brute force this in the shortest period of time

I was actually wondering... How long would it take to crack/brute force a 32 bit key/encryption and a 16 bit key/encryptions respectively on a 4GHZ and a 2GHZ PC. I know that a 32 bit integer has 4,...
1
vote
1answer
410 views

Given partial key exposure and encryption oracle, can we recover full AES key?

Suppose I have an encryption oracle for AES with some key $k$ (16 bytes) and that I know $n$ bytes of it. Is it possible to recover the rest ($16 - n$) in complexity less than $256^{16-n}$?
0
votes
1answer
573 views

Show that if a fixed key MAC is not collision resistant then the MAC function is not computation resistant for every key K

I'm really having some trouble with this one. Let $H$ be a MAC function. For every key $K$ we can create an unkeyed hash function (i.e.an MDC) by using $H$ to hash messages with the fixed key $K$. ...
1
vote
2answers
518 views

Hash collisions in sha512 hash of secp256k1 public keys

For a sha512 hash of a secp256k1 public key, how many other public keys could generate that hash? I would assume zero since the key size is equal to the hash length (secp256k1 public keys are 64 bytes,...
2
votes
1answer
373 views

SHA-256 security for initial 32 bits

I have concerns regarding truncated SHA-256 hashes in an application I am building at the moment: Nomenclature secret - the full 256-bit SHA-256 result of hashing ...
2
votes
1answer
443 views

Partial Known Message Pre-Image Attack on SHA-1

If the last 448 bits of a sha1 block input are known (only the first 64 bits are unknown). Is it possible to do a preimage attack using SAT solvers or something else? Or do I have to brute force all $...
1
vote
2answers
328 views

DES - encrypt 3 times - DES(DES(DES, k), k'), k) - stronger than 2DES with 2 different keys?

What if were to use DES in the following way: For a given plaintext x and key k we will perform: ...
1
vote
1answer
247 views

How to make my hash more robust to the brute force?

I'm using PBKDF2 SHA 256 with 100 000 iterations to generate a secret. I want to increase the cost of brute forcing the passphrase I use to generate the secret. I'm thinking of using scrypt after ...
1
vote
1answer
399 views

How to calculate time needed for decryption of 64-bit key

I am having trouble figuring out how long it takes to decrypt a 64-bit key, given that a computer can do 1 billion trials per second. I know that there are $2^{64} = 1.844 \times 10^{19}$ possible ...
1
vote
2answers
187 views

How long would it take all of the supercomputers or cloud computing on Earth to bruteforce a significantly long password?

I was arguing with a colleague who thinks that SHA256 (password + 64 character static salt) is "insecure." My argument is that nothing in cryptography is "secure," it's all a ...
1
vote
1answer
210 views

Supercomputer to crash hash

For NVIDIA TESLA V100 I know a hashcat performance for SHA1: it is about 17000 MH/s. Performance index for V100 is FP32 5120, FP64 2560. But what about supercomputers? For example Summit ...
0
votes
1answer
198 views

Finding and matching SHA512 Unsalted Hash

We are given a list of possible strings, there are $32^{16}$ ($=2^{80}$) to be exact. We also have the unsalted SHA512 of the original target string. How long would it take to go through those ...
3
votes
1answer
130 views

Do ciphers with a key size of 64 bits still have use under very limited attack models?

If we have a very performance critical interactive session, like a video game, running on a trusted platform (video game console). If our goal is to prevent exfiltration of up to date information (...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

AES-128 with doubled 8Byte key

Assuming I encrypt data with AES-128 and a random 8-byte key x in the following way: ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

Good pre-image resistance value for hash visualization

I want to do "hash visualization", i.e. derive a human-meaningful information from a hash, like a phrase or an avatar. But the current techniques usually don't use many bits, for example tripphrases ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

MD5 hash: retrieve an element of a source string

Suppose you have a string, precisely an MD5 hash string, which basically it is computed in the following way: "element1:element2:element3" So, in order to get ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Brute force strategy

I am a beginner in this field, and I was thinking about brute force strategies to break symmetric key encryption. Let's say we have a block cipher in CTR mode and the key is 56 bits in size. What ...
0
votes
0answers
102 views

How reassuring is 64-qubit security?

After we've concluded that 64-bit is an insecurity for classical computers, I think many would like to know, how secure in a perspective view, is 64 quantum bits security. As we know, the Grover's ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Calculating DES key knowing message before and after encryption [duplicate]

I've 8 bytes before encryption (for example: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08) and 8 bytes after DES encryption: ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Algorithm/encryption technique which outputs a set number of numerical digits e.g. 20 digits from a given input

What the name of the algorithm/encryption technique which outputs a set number of numerical digits e.g. 20 digits based on some input. You can input some data e.g. text or numbers but the output is ...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

What is meant by encrypting/decrypting a known plaintext/ciphertext with every possible key in meet-in-the-middle?

I am working on the Meet-in-the-middle attack on 2DES and I have got some questions I am not sure about. I read several websites/articles about it so I have got an idea of what it is and how it works. ...
0
votes
0answers
49 views

Finding the cleartext password given its MD5

Given powerful GPU and PC hardware, is it realistic to recover a password in a few hours given a cleartext's MD5? Max chars are 95, and the maximum length of the password is 15 characters.
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Can Trivium ciphertext be decrypted by an adversary if the key is known, but the IV is not?

Suppose that the adversary is able to recover the key of Trivium cipher. But the associated IV is unknown to him. Will he be able to decrypt the ciphertexts without any complexity?