Linked Questions

424 votes
13 answers
192k views

Should we MAC-then-encrypt or encrypt-then-MAC?

Most of the time, when some data must be encrypted, it must also be protected with a MAC, because encryption protects only against passive attackers. There are some nifty encryption modes which ...
Thomas Pornin's user avatar
39 votes
3 answers
48k views

Why is CBC with predictable IV considered insecure against chosen-plaintext attack?

I just learned that using CBC encryption with an IV which is predictable is not secure. From what I understand, using certain plain texts, and then guessing the IV that it uses, the attacker can ...
asudhak's user avatar
  • 491
14 votes
4 answers
9k views

Disadvantages of AES-CTR?

On paper, it sounds *very* good to me: secure fast (in my tests it's somewhat slower than ECB (but without most of the weaknesses, more on that below) but faster than every other alternative I tested,...
hanshenrik's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
31k views

Bit Flipping Attack on CBC Mode

To perform a bit flipping attack, the previous block is modified by using XOR. This results in an altered plaintext. However, now the ciphertext of the previous block is altered, hence it will result ...
CXB's user avatar
  • 321
10 votes
3 answers
14k views

How to break AES/CBC/PKCS5 when key and IV are reused?

I'm doing a code review for a crypto solution that reuses the same key with a constant IV. I want to demonstrate that this is not the right way to do things by figuring out the key and decrypting all ...
Heathkit7's user avatar
  • 101
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

During padding oracle attack (CBC), how is first byte of plaintext block is obtained?

Imagine conducting a padding oracle attack against CBC mode with 16-byte length blocks, and PKCS#5 used for padding. You start, as always, revealing the last byte of plaintext. Then you iteratively ...
bleg's user avatar
  • 51
3 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is a good AES mode to use on file encryption?

I'm new to encryption and cryptography, I was wondering if there is a good or best suited AES mode for file encryption (Planning on zipping a folder and encrypt it as a file). If there is, how complex ...
user63579's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
950 views

Cipher suites: same name, different IDs, why?

Sorry if I missed with a community to ask. Recently I stumbled on a fact that the same cipher suite can be designated by two different IDs, and this is not a typo nor single occasion. For instance: ...
Yury Schkatula's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
920 views

Why are block ciphers mostly used as stream ciphers?

Using a block cipher with using either CTR or GCM mode gives us a stream cipher, the only difference being that CTR does not include a MAC tag or AAD but GCM does. I think these are the most commonly ...
Gamer2015's user avatar
  • 236
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is the maximum number of messages that can be encrypted using the same key for CTR mode?

In the counter mode of encryption, the nonce cannot be used again unless a new block cipher key is chosen. What is the maximum number of messages that can be encrypted using the same key? The maximum ...
geektobe's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is CTR really equally secure than CBC?

Here is a typical cryptographic situation: A secret key exists that is only known to a sender and a receiver of messages. As it is hard to replace that key, since you either need a secure channel for ...
Mecki's user avatar
  • 187
0 votes
0 answers
980 views

Is OpenSSL enc using AES-256-CBC to encrypt large files safe?

I first generate a keyfile with openssl rand -hex 64 -out keyfile. I then encrypt the file with ...
henderson's user avatar