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Questions tagged [aes]

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a symmetrical block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes of 128, 192 or 256 bits.

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AES-MixColumn layer in the last round

In the "Introduction to Cryptography: With Coding Theory" by Trappe and Washington, in the chapter about AES algorithm the authors say that in the last round of the encryption algorithm the MixColumn ...
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AES - Non-linearity hinders differential cryptoanalysis

Can you explain me, in simple terms if possible (I'm not a mathematician :( ), why the non-linearity introduced by the AES s-boxes hinder the differential cryptoanalysis ?
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Would adding more rounds to AES increase security?

As the title states, would increasing the rounds by doubling them to Bruce Schneiers recommendation of 16, 20, and 28 increase security? And how much? As a bit more, would increasing rounds, keys, ...
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How can AES-CCM behave as an AEAD stream cipher?

AESCCM- Couter with Cipher Block Chaining Message. As it uses cmac for generation for tag , which is internally aes-cbc (block cipher, need block size, may require padding) And Encryption is done ...
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Does AES encryption of a NTRU pivate key reduce security?

The NTRU crypto system requires quite long keys. For example with parameters N=439 and q=2048 the security is 128 bits and the key_size is 4829 bits. When the private key is encrypted with AES-256 ...
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using different IV and SALT with AES-CBC but same KEY

I'm working on this project where a client can send a message, now obviously sending it in plainText is not very smart. So I decided to Encrypt it with AES-CBC. Now, each time I encrypt something, ...
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145 views

How much would this AES modification improve security?

How much would using AES-CTR like 3DES improve security? Like so (Using a 512-bit key split into two; $K_1$ & $K_2$, and seperate nonces for all stages): ...
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encrypt data in AES with mode CBC [closed]

I want to encrypt data in AES with mode CBC and in Padding PKCS7 I'm having trouble displaying encrypted text ...
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56 views

Which AES modes can decrypt from anywhere in the ciphertext

CTR is amenable to parallelization because you can split the message into chunks, each chunk having a range of counter values associated with it, and encrypt (or ...
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49 views

Encypt a file with AES using a secret key derived with Argon2

I would like to encrypt some sensitive files on my computer and smartphone so that they remain unreadable even if the computer is stolen. So far as I'm concerned, AES is the best encryption algorithm,...
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Is it safe to compute HMAC(Base64(IV) || “,” || Base64(CipherText)) instead of HMAC(IV || CipherText)?

Let || be the concatenation operator. Let CipherText = AES(Key1, IV, Message). Let us assume AES is used in CBC mode. I want ...
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What value for a Rfc2898 (PKBDF2) is overkill?

I am working on a project which needs to share messages, and part of that project is deriving a password, I am currently using a value of 65537, totally arbitrary (...
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AES Encryption Mixcolumn code Verilog [closed]

I am working on implementing AES encryption on Verilog. I have forked a repo for the project but can't understand a piece of the code. Would love if someone can explain a is the data input to ...
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Are there any known problems or attacks for using SHA1(AES_key) as the HMAC key?

See this answer that explains the following sequence of operations: CipherText = IV|| AES(key1,iv,message) tag = hmac(key2,ciphertext) That answer says, You ...
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Why use complex encryption algorithms? [duplicate]

I have recently gotten interested in cryptography, so I looked some things up. I thought, why even use AES or DES or any other complex way for encrypting data when there are far simpler ways, like ...
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What are the actual merits of Galois/Counter Mode?

GCM (Galois/Counter Mode), in particular in combination with AES, has been a de-facto gold standard for years. Encrypt and authenticate in one step, that's just too awesome, and terms like AEAD work ...
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What if an AES Whitebox 1024-bit (or larger key) is created? Does it increase complexity consistently?

Following the Chow et al paper and Muir's tutorial, I was able to implement the AES algorithm using tables embedding keys of 128, 192 and 256-bit sizes, later extended to 1024, 2048 and 4096-bit sizes....
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AES Cipher Block Chaining 128 bit message

I understand that for AES CBC you need to split the plaintext up into blocks and perform XOR'ing using the previous blocks calculations etc. However, if your message is exactly 128 bits long, do you ...
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Is it possible to identify a Serpent encryption key in memory?

It has been shown that AES keys that are in use can be identified in memory. This identification relies on discovering expected round keys in memory that are contained within the key schedule. My ...
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Encrypt AES with 2 different keys but the same IV [on hold]

Let's say I have 2 messages like hi and bye. I will encrypt hi with ...
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1answer
61 views

XTS or XEX mode?

Modern hardware and software disk encryption uses AES mode of operation. But XTS was designed to "pad" the last block when the disk sector was not divisible by block size. However all typical disk ...
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Best practices for IV generation

What are the best practices for IV generation for AES and other algorithms? Is RNG enough? What if I cannot use RNG and need to use a variable that is related to some characteristic of the ...
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Extracting RC4 and 3DES keys from system memory

I have read papers [1], [2] that have presented techniques on extracting symmetric encryption keys from memory during the process of encryption. There are tools [3] that can extract AES keys from ...
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Encrypting data on both iOS and Android without external dependencies (can I use AES-CBC?)

I am trying to achieve AWS KMS envelope encryption on both iOS and Android. From the KMS API I get a 256 bit data key in both plaintext and encrypted forms (encrypted by a master key held only on KMS ...
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AES CCM replay attack and nonce

My wireless sensor nodes and gateway application use timestamps as nonce and will guaranty that different messages use different nonces so security is not compromised. If for some reason the gateway ...
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Signing AES Cipher

Alice and Bob have a pre-shared long-term Ed25519 key used for veryfying/signing ephemeral keys. They have a shared key which resulted from the DH exchange. They compute HKDF SHA256 of the shared key ...
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Why weak modes of operations are not banned?

If some modes of operations of AES are not secure (like ECB or CBC), which are prone to bit flipping / manipulation attacks, and why they haven't they been banned or advised against by NIST for other ...
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Does AES-ECB with random padding added to each block satisfy IND-CPA?

I present a modified version of AES-ECB. Suppose I want to encrypt the string hello, world. this is a test. For each block, I use the first eight bytes as my actual ...
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Use a AWS KMS AES-GCM key with AES-CBC algorithm from iOS CommonCrypto [migrated]

As far as I can tell, AWS KMS Data Keys are AES-GCM keys. (source: https://d0.awsstatic.com/whitepapers/KMS-Cryptographic-Details.pdf page 13) Does that mean I must use AES-GCM to encrypt data with ...
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Disk encryption with AES

have few more questions about disk encryption with AES cipher: Do we consider all zeros (0000000) as empty block of data or is it still a data? Do we really need padding to the data blocks if a disk ...
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AES Stream Cipher Mode Key Reuse With Random IV Per Message [duplicate]

Im using AES OFB mode, which is a stream cipher. It will be used to encrypt many seperate small amounts of data in very short amounts of time. If for every separate piece of data encrypted I use a ...
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AES key vs sector key

I have read about AES and different modes of operation (CBC, ECB etc) and have 2 questions related to disk encryption: -AES data block is 16 bytes - how does it relate to sector sizes on the drive ...
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An alternative for /dev/urandom [migrated]

I like to overwrite my harddisk with random data. Since /dev/urandom as source is too slow to overwrite a large amount of data in a reasonable time, I'm looking for a good alternative. These two ...
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What should the hamming weights be between every iteration of AES?

I have an assignment where I have to print out the hamming weights between every iteration of AES's diffusion steps and I have been getting a maximum weight on every iteration, but I can't seem to ...
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1answer
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How does gpg know what cipher algorithm is needed for decryption?

I am using gpg to make encrypt a tar.gz. My first try uses --verbose --symmetric and then the decryption is done with ...
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1answer
68 views

Why can't AES-GCM be used in IKEv1 phase 1?

I was configuring a VPN on a firewall (fortigate) and realized that I could use AES-GCM for encryption in the IKEv1 phase 2 but not in the phase 1 and I was wondering why knowing that in IKEv2 we ...
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Hybrid cryptosystem

I'm using RSA (4096) and AES GCM (256) to exchange messages between A and B. A random key for AES is generated, the plain message is encrypted with AES, and the random AES key is encrypted with Bs ...
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Is AES in XTS mode insecure for data stream encryption?

Can anybody explain to me why AES in XTS mode is supposedly insecure for data stream encryption? I have been unable to find a clear explanation for this.
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Which is the best AES mode of operation? [closed]

Is there any reason to choose, say ECB over CBC? Or GCM over AEX? Or CTR over CFB? Is there a best AES mode of operation? And, when required, which is the best padding to use?
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Why is $S(y) = y^{2^8-2} = y^{254}$ a one-to-one function and a permutation on $GF(2^8)$

I'm taking a course on cryptography and I have some confusions concerning the materials in our notes. Say we have the field $GF(2^8)$, we create a substitution algorithm (the S Box in AES) so we need ...
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Why algorithmic symmetry is important in hardware implementation?

In AES, the encryption and decryption functions ordered in a symmetric way, I mean the same order of functions are used inside the round structure of both encryption and decryption (subbytes, ...
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Complexity of AES key reconstruction from state 1 output and plaintext

Assuming that I am able to read the plaintext as well as the output of round 1 of an AES-128 encryption: Is it possible (if yes: how?) to obtain the RoundKey with a lower complexity than brute-force ...
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Authenticated AES 256 CBC HMAC SHA512 - What's the right way to implement in C#? [closed]

I have a "Encrypt-then-Mac" C# implementation of "AE_AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512" WITHOUT associated data, only authentication. In my code, I follow these steps to encrypt strings: Generate a crypt ...
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AES Threat Model

I've read/skimmed a few documents about the AES family of encryption, but haven't seen anything about what exactly it protects against. There are many ways to "encrypt" things, and not all of them ...
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What is the relation between AES and PTK in WPA2 wifi

I know that modern wpa2 wifis use AES key to encrypt data. a client who has the password, can obtain psk/pmk use it for handshaking . so what is the purpose of ptk, and how AES key is generated?
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81 views

Is using the same MAC twice insecure?

I was thinking last night about whether or not a HMAC-Encrypt-HMAC would be secure if you used the same HMAC key. Here is the full recipe: Compute a HMAC on the data to encrypt, and append it to the ...
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AES-128 with doubled 8Byte key

Assuming I encrypt data with AES-128 and a random 8-byte key x in the following way: ...
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1answer
37 views

Size of Key Material of TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

What is the size of key material required for generating MAC keys, encryption keys and IV when use TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ? How to calculate it?
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AES-128: can any two keys generate the same ciphertext from the same plaintext?

This is a purely theoretical question. I've found some similar questions, but they're not what I'm asking. Most importantly, I'm not asking whether anyone can find the hypothetical duplicate. I'm not ...
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AEAD (for AES128-GCM): is it necessary to add a zero-length AAD?

In an implementation of AEAD_AES_128_GCM, if the AAD is defined as a "zero-length octet sequence", is it necessary to call the encryption code that adds an AAD at all? In particular, does an OpenSSL/...