Questions tagged [aes-gcm]

Deprecated tag, see tag info. Advanced Encryption Standard Galois/Counter Mode, better known as AES-GCM is a mode of operation for symmetric key cryptographic block ciphers that has been widely adopted because of its efficiency and performance. GCM supports authenticated encryption, meaning that the mode not only offers privacy, but also integrity.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
37
votes
3answers
8k views

Why was AES CBC removed in TLS 1.3?

I don't quite understand why AES CBC was removed in TLS1.3. From what I know CBC is the most secure Mode of operation for the AES block cipher (if you can say it like that). It only needs a TRND IV ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Can AES-GCM be broken if initialisation vector is known?

We are using AES encryption in GCM block mode in order to encrypt a number of different kinds of data at rest on a mobile device - Android. The key used for encryption is stored in the protected key-...
10
votes
1answer
385 views

how does BearSSL's GCM modular reduction work?

BearSSL (in src/hash/ghash_ctmul.c) seems to be doing a modular reduction that I don't completely understand. Here's the code: ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

Can a zero nonce be safely used with AES-GCM if the key is random and never used again?

I could generate a random nonce and prepend it to the ciphertext, but storage space is at a premium and the only constraint AES-GCM has on the nonce (if I'm reading correctly) is that the same nonce ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

TLS 1.2 Cipher Suites With AES-GCM – What data (if any) is passed to the AES-GCM cipher as the Additional Authentication Data?

TLS 1.2 defines a number of cipher suites that employ AES-GCM, e.g.: ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Deterministic Encryption with AES GCM - how to choose the IV (nonce)

I have not a very large background in cryptography so I hope these questions are not very dumb. I don't want to reinvent the wheel, I'm just looking for advise on the best practices about how to build ...
8
votes
0answers
681 views

Key size, performance, and security tradeoffs for AES GCM / CCM

AES can be used with 128, 192 or 256 bit keys and each one appears to have a performance vs security trade-off (What is the effect of the different AES key lengths?, What are the practical differences ...
8
votes
0answers
175 views

GCM with reversed poly

These slides talk about how GCM can be sped up if one uses $x^{128}+x^{127}+x^{126}+x^{121}+1$ as the reduction polynomial instead of $x^{128}+x^7+x^2+x^1+1$. When one is doing that one needs to ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

IV in Galois Counter Mode

I am looking at Wikepedia Galois Counter Mode article. I see this diagram I am trying to figure out where the IV works its way in. Is it used to initialize the counter? If so, how does a sequence of ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Delayed tag checks in AES-GCM for streaming data

There is currently a GitHub discussion on .NET not supporting AES-GCM for any streaming data since releasing decrypted data prior to tag checks somehow reveals the plaintext or the AES key (or some ...
6
votes
1answer
11k views

Apple secure notes. How secure?

In terms of cryptography, how secure is Apple Secure Notes? Can one store sensitive information there? The relevant section of the Apple white paper is quoted below: The Notes app includes a Secure ...
6
votes
1answer
143 views

Is this a typo/error in the Galois/Counter mode specification or have I misunderstood?

I've been reading the following document describing Galois Counter Mode: The Galois/Counter Mode of Operation On page 7 of the document, the following diagram describes the ...
5
votes
2answers
944 views

How is NIST's Key Wrap (using AES GCM) different than normal AES GCM Authenticated encryption?

From what I could gather, it seems like that NIST's key wrap (publication) provides similar security like AES-GCM Authenticated encryption. If this is true, why did we need a separate specification ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

The Rationale behind NIST's counter/LFSR recommendation on deterministic IV constructions on SP 800-38D

The NIST has a "SP 800-38D: Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC". This guideline is a base for AES-GCM from definition to security ...
5
votes
2answers
526 views

What are the popular modes-of-operation (AES-GCM, AES-SIV, AES-GCM-SIV, etc.) geared for?

I'm interested in developing software capable of encrypting personal files (which will ultimately be backed up to the cloud) and have been doing my best to follow best practices. There are many forms ...
4
votes
2answers
842 views

What are the actual merits of Galois/Counter Mode?

GCM (Galois/Counter Mode), in particular in combination with AES, has been a de-facto gold standard for years. Encrypt and authenticate in one step, that's just too awesome, and terms like AEAD work ...
4
votes
2answers
635 views

Is it possible to recover AES-GCM plaintext when having everything but the additional data?

I'm using the window.crypto library in browsers. I use iv from window.crypto.getRandomValues...
4
votes
1answer
319 views

Why doesn't GMAC/GCM encrypt its authentication tag?

As most know, a duplicate nonce with GMAC/GCM allows key recovery attacks against GMAC itself and thus the ability to forge messages. This is because GMAC computes GHASH and then just XORs this with ...
4
votes
1answer
345 views

What are the rules for using AES-GCM correctly?

When using AES-GCM I know that I am supposed to use a new initialization vector every time I call the AES-GCM algorithm with the same key. What are other rules must be followed to use AES-GCM ...
4
votes
0answers
126 views

Patent Status & Usability of AE Modes [closed]

Post Structure: Sources Cited Question & Details Before You Answer Useful Info From Comments Sources Cited: https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2012/05/19/how-to-choose-authenticated-...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

What if an AES GCM nonce overflows and collides with the GHASH nonce (0^128)?

When using AES in GCM mode, the GHASH function uses E(0^128) as the initial value for H, the authentication key. The IV, for the underlaying CTR mode, is initialized with: [prefix (application nonce)]...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Is AES-GCM with static key and dynamic salt safe to reuse IV/nonce

Problem: want to encrypt messages/objects/files using AES-GCM with the same secret key in a safe way, but want to do it in distributed/stateless way, so the IV of previous encryptions with the same ...
3
votes
2answers
134 views

Extending AES-GCM initialization vector

We all know that applications of crypto primitives like to not think about the management of nonces, and initialization vectors and often prefer to just set them to random values. This sometimes leads ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Real time video stream AES encryption with authentication

I am now studying AES encryption for real-time video streaming. It seems that Netflix uses the AES-GCM (or CBC + MAC) mode for real-time video encryption and authentication. With MAC authentication, ...
3
votes
2answers
248 views

Size of IV in AES-GCM according to RFC 4106

RFC 4106 specifies about nonce. It contains a salt of size 4 octets and an iv of size 8 octets. Further, RFC specifies that salt is assigned at the beginning of the security associations which is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

AES 128 GCM - dynamic key with static IV/nonce

I'm working on a project to upgrade an existing system that currently uses RC4 to encrypt a payload with a random session key. The session key is then encrypted with asymmetric public key encryption (...
3
votes
1answer
348 views

Why can't AES-GCM be used in IKEv1 phase 1?

I was configuring a VPN on a firewall (fortigate) and realized that I could use AES-GCM for encryption in the IKEv1 phase 2 but not in the phase 1 and I was wondering why knowing that in IKEv2 we ...
3
votes
2answers
989 views

Is a single md5 hash a good way to generate an AES key?

This site says how to encrypt data using a password in go using AES-GCM. It says the following: When encrypting and decrypting data, it is important that you are using a 32 character, or 32 byte key. ...
3
votes
1answer
500 views

AES - which cipher is the safest one out there and what are the best practices for creating and storing the key

I just started to learn cryptography. I've read a ton of articles but couldn't find a book or a course that is based on this subject (and also is not outdated). Therefore I have a few questions (...
3
votes
1answer
467 views

Why is counter mode encryption with a 16-byte cipher block not broken?

We determine a system IND-CPA secure when an adversary has a negligible advantage after any feasible amount of queries. AES256-GCM uses a 128bit block cipher. We know that the distinguishability ...
3
votes
2answers
732 views

Is it safe to use a counter as IV for AES256-GCM

What if I will use 96-bit integer counter starting from 0 as IV for AES256-GCM cipher. Is it safe? Is there any other ways to ensure uniqueness of IV for GCM cipher?
3
votes
0answers
49 views

How is the time intereval calculated for symmetric key re-negoatition in UK Security Standard – Use of Cryptography?

According to point 10.6.4 (Encryption in Transit) in Security Standard –Use of Cryptography, one of the criteria for key renegotiation is timeout , Encrypted sessions MUST re-negotiate new symmetric ...
3
votes
0answers
592 views

WebCrypto AES-GCM vs AES-KW for key wrapping

The Web Crypto API available in most browsers supports both AES-GCM and AES-KW for key wrapping. There are examples for AES-KW and AES-GCM performing key wrapping, and a popular live table indicates ...
3
votes
0answers
243 views

Add authenticated encryption additional data (AEAD) to data encryption key (DEK)?

When using a DEK to encrypt data using envelope encryption do you need to add AEAD to the DEK itself? I would think that it is unnecessary because bit flipping attacks are useless against a DEK and ...
2
votes
3answers
450 views

Why this complexity defining AES-GCM counter block?

AES-GCM counter block is defined as nonce || IV || counter. Why this complexity? Knowing that it does not need to be secret and its only required property is to be ...
2
votes
3answers
6k views

How to encrypt files using AES256-GCM cipher under Linux? [closed]

I'm struggling to implement AES256-GCM on a Linux machine to encrypt files outgoing to another party. We're usually exchanging files using PKI, but this particular party insists on AES256-GCM and ...
2
votes
1answer
216 views

Why is GCM not vulnerable at the birthday bound for 128 bit IV?

According to this article, which looks at attacks on Caesar candidates beyond what they claim, they include an attack on page 6 for nonce-respecting adversaries for AES-GCM which allows IVs longer ...
2
votes
2answers
583 views

AES-GCM: Verification before Decryption

I am looking at ChaCha20Poly1305 WolfSSL. It is noted that the ChaCha20Poly1305 AEAD construction has the property, that it only outputs the plaintext, if the verification of the MAC (Authentication ...
2
votes
2answers
830 views

AES-GCM for Securing Bluetooth Low Energy Application

I have a task at hand on designing security on Bluetooth Low Energy application layer. The system is created so that only smartphones with symmetric key (long term) could communicate and control my ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Why GCM operation mode with AES-128 is recomended and can we use AES-192 and AES-256 with GCM?

It happens that on the internet I often find that AES encryption should use a 128-bit key only if it is used in conjunction with the GCM mode of operation. Why only with 128-bit keys? What happens ...
2
votes
1answer
689 views

AES-GCM secure against IND-CCA2

How would you prove that AES-GCM is secure against a chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2), assuming that the attacker cannot forge AES-GCM MAC tags in less than brute force?
2
votes
2answers
614 views

Key wrapping - encrypting many times with AES-GCM

When encrypting many short plaintexts with a single key, lets say about 2^64 total plaintexts at under 64 bytes each: (edit note - was 2^70 in the original question) Is there a way to use AES-GCM, as ...
2
votes
3answers
291 views

Can AES GCM mode detect an incorrect key and refuse to decrypt?

I understand that AES in GCM mode produces an authentication tag that is used to ensure that a tampered with cipher text is not decrypted. However, if I pass the wrong key will AES in GCM mode detect ...
2
votes
1answer
271 views

Key derivation for AES-GCM using HKDF?

I have a system comprising N >1000 nodes. At each node I would like to use HKDF to derive a unique 256-bit key, Kn (for the nth node), from a pre-shared master key, K0, and a locally-generated random ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

I need help determining the best encryption options based on System.Security.Cryptography in .NET

I asked a question here, and received a great summary but was redirected here. Covering the answers of the post, it was noted and suggested that: Use of plain (CBC) mode. They suggested to use GCM ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

emulating AES GCM with AES CTR

Building off of Relationship between AES GCM and AES CTR... if your GCM nonce is "aaaa aaaa aaaa" (no spaces) then the CTR IV is that with (0,0,0,2) appending to it. My question is... what happens ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Encryption / Decryption using AES-256 GCM

I am new in cryptography and I am facing some complications in encryption-decryption. I am trying to use AES-GCM with a 256-bit AES key and a 96-bit nonce. I use an open source project (Vault) to ...
2
votes
1answer
859 views

Key generation for AES-GCM-256 file encryption

I am currently working on a file encryption software that works via AES-GCM-256 and I am looking for feedback on the encryption key generation process I intend to implement. So far, I have come up ...
2
votes
1answer
801 views

Proper way of encrypting large files with AES-256-GCM

I would like to encrypt and decrypt files with AES-256-GCM. I need a solution that works with Java, PHP and JavaScript. In practice, users can upload, download files via web browser and/or desktop app ...
2
votes
1answer
224 views

GCM mode of operation and IV size less 96 bits

GCM specification defines the initial counter value $Y_0$ for encryption/decryption operations as follows: $$ Y_0=\begin{cases} IV||0^{31}1 &\text{if len}(IV)=96\\ GHASH(H,\{\},IV)& \text{...