Questions tagged [authenticated-encryption]

Combination of encryption and authentication in a way that ensures confidentiality and integrity.

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Case Scenarios where Identity Based identification (IBI) Scheme can be employed

I was reading about identity based Identification scheme today. There are lot of articles and research paper on it. There is active research being done in this are of IBI schemes. My question is ...
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getting key $k_{2}$ somehow definitely compromise authentication scheme and attacker can see cipher text now…so not secure

I was going through this question of nested encryption: Given $\Pi$ = $({Gen}, {Enc}, {Dec})$ is authentication encryption we have designed new scheme $\Pi^{'}$ = $({Gen^{'}}, {Enc{'}}, {Dec{'}})$ ...
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Not getting idea how to formally chose chosen cipher attack so adversay wins with non-negligible probability

I was going through this question and intuition came that same message can be used to break security but I an not able formalize it well...can someone help how to create chosen ciphertext attack ...
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IND-CCA insecurity of modified CBC encrypt + MAC scheme

I've been puzzling over the following proof for the past couple of days. Since a block cipher in CBC mode can be used to build both an IND-CPA secure encryption scheme and a EUF-CMA secure block, a ...
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Is it possible to create a “digital seal” to tell if a document has been opened?

So, in real life we have a handful of ways to leave a physical mark on a packet to know if it has been opened without authorization (eg. you can use 'opened' security tapes, or you can put a signature ...
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Encrypting h(k) for defeating partition oracle attacks

Is encrypting $h(k)$ (or even just $k$) and verifying it before checking the MAC enough to defeat partition oracle attacks and thus make the whole scheme robust/committing (without depending on ...
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Is nonce-less Encrypt-then-HMAC as secure as poly1305

While reading https://crypto.stackexchange.com/a/88732/87450 I noticed that it suggests encrypt-then-HMAC as a defense for partition attacks. However as far as I know unlike poly1305, HMAC does not ...
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Synchronous Sponges

The paper The sponge construction as a source of secure cryptographic primitives (see Figure 6) mentions a synchronous sponge mode (working like CTR or OFB modes). So, this type of sponge is a non-...
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Ignoring the TAG of the AEAD-SIV encryption

I am working with personal data that contain Identifying attributes such as a player ID and i need to prepare the data for analysis purposes, therefore i need to pseudoanonymize the data beforehand. ...
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How Mac-then-encrypt provide security in nonce-misuse setting?

From this, it is clear that Encrypt-then-Mac provides more complete security than Mac-then-Encrypt but some schemes use Mac-then-encrypt to provide nonce-misuse resistance such as SIV (AES-GCM-SIV, ...
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How does GHASH used in GCM behave as a universal hashing function?

As per my understanding, a Universal Hash Function isn't a cryptographic hash function & it's output isn't uniformly distributed. However, this is still secure because it's actually a family of ...
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How secure is Encrypt-And-MAC?

From this popular Crypto.SE thread, the general feeling is that Encrypt-Then-MAC is the most secure. From the first answer, the poster says that Encrypt-And-MAC provides integrity of the plaintext. If ...
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What are the implications of allowing a zero-length GCM nonce?

NIST SP800-38D section 5.2.1.1 is clear that empty nonces are not allowed with GCM, but without explaining the reasoning. My assumption was this is simply because the probability of error (encrypting ...
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Using authenticated encryption along with signing

I know of a project that implemented e2e encryption using both authenticated encryption and public key signing. So the ciphertext produced for a message would be: ...
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Key Committing AEADs

There are multi-key attacks against some AEADs. In other words, multiple keys can be used to decrypt a message since multiple keys can be valid for an authentication tag. How would one go about adding ...
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Can I use ChaCha20-Poly1305 as my KDF?

I have two devices that use a PSK. One is embedded and extremely resource confined. I'm already using ChaCha20-Poly1305 so it would be "free" to reuse this. There is no transport encryption ...
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Identification Schemes and Internet of Things

I was reading an article titled "A Novel Method for Polar Form of Any Degree of Multivariate Polynomials with Applications in IoT" (doi:10.3390/s19040903) I read the following statement: &...
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GPG should you double sign?

This is not a question about whether I should encrypt or sign first, as I've read here. Rather, it's about whether I should sign, then encrypt, then sign again. Because as far as I know, there is no ...
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Using crypto_sign then crypto_box_seal for anonymous messages

If you have a message M and you want the sender (alice) to be anonymous to everyone but the recipient (bob), is it ok to do? ...
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Encryption on one AES mode and decrypting on another, where both use HMAC

Let's say there are 2 ciphers, $enc$ and $dec$, where: $enc$ will encrypt the data, and $dec$ will decrypt it. Both $enc$ and $dec$ must be an AES cipher. $enc$ and $dec$ will use the same key $k$ ...
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Not understanding deterministic authenticated encryption (DAE) security definition

I have a question regarding the security definition of deterministic authenticated encryption (DAE) as defined by Bellare and Shrimpton. Their definition is reproduced below, and my question pertains ...
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MAC-then-encrypt in SIGMA protocol for authenticated key exchange

The SIGMA protocol proposed in 2003 and used in TLS 1.3 and IKE stands for "SIGn-and-MAc" and can optionally protect identity using encryption. The SIGMA-I variant illustrated below ...
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Why does NIST want 112-bit security from 128-bit key size for lightweight cryptography?

In NIST's Submission Requirements and Evaluation Criteria for the Lightweight Cryptography Standardization Process document it is stated that: 3.1 AEAD (Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data) ...
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Why does TinyJAMBU-128 claim only 112-bit security?

I am trying to understand the security level of TinyJAMBU-128. As shown in Table 4.1 page 12 of this document, TinyJAMBU-128 claims 112-bit security. However, it has a 128-bit key. How have we lost 16 ...
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How to show Hash-Then-Encrypt is not AE-secure

(E,D) is a CPA-secure cipher defined over (K,M,C).H: C → T is collision resistant hash functions. E(k,m):=E(k,m), H(c)), D=(k,c1,c2):=D(k,c1) if H(c1)==C2 otherwise Reject. ps:the question is from the ...
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XSalsa20 + Poly1305 authentication wtihout tag

Do I understand correctly that XSalsa20 + Poly1305 provides authentication without a tag? If so, then how does that work? I came to that conclusion by reading http://nacl.cr.yp.to/secretbox.html, &...
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CCA secure vs AE scheme

We already know that every authenticated encryption scheme is CCA secure, I was wondering about the converse. I believe it is not true, and I am finding trouble to construct a scheme which is only CCA ...
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How to securely encrypt/decrypt data with a maximum chunk size?

I am aware of the different modes so that a "raw" block cipher such as AES (ECB) can be used to encrypt more than a single block of data (CBC, OFB, CTR, etc) and modes such as AES-GCM which ...
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Security Proof, Sequence of games and birthday paradox

The sequence of games security proof approach is very confusing. For example, I am trying to understand it in the following paper https://www.dropbox.com/s/dhsgsognxviwacv/Provably%20Secure%...
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How can RSA be used to compactly sign and encrypt?

How can RSA be used for digital signature with message recovery and encryption, providing transmission of a small message with confidentiality and authentication simultaneously, small cryptogram size, ...
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In what paper was OCB2 introduced?

I've been working through "Cryptanalysis of OCB2: Attacks on Authenticity and Confidentiality" 1 from earlier this year. My knowledge of OCB2 is pretty shallow though, and so I'm keen to ...
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Using a nonce as a salt for key derivation

I'm currently playing a bit with PyNaCl (python binding to libsodium) and I want to use the secretbox for symmetric encryption between two parties, which means they both must know the (in my case ...
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Is AES-GCM-SIV with fixed IV deterministic authenticated encryption?

Is there any functional or strong security difference beyond speed between AES-GCM-SIV with implicit fixed public IV and no additional data AES-CTR (or AES-OFB) with 128-bit IV computed per HMAC-SHA-...
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Is there any way to save Email encrypted in Database and used as normal later?

I have a senario like " I want to save a email (like foo@bar.com) encrypted in Database (For example as 'asdjasjdna') ...
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Can Encrypt-then-MAC be used with session ticket resumption?

In TLS 1.2, say a session ticket is created for the current session (Session Tickets RFC 5077), and the current session uses the Encrypt-then-MAC extension RFC 7366 (I.E. both client and server ...
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AES-GCM ciphertext that deciphers under two keys

How can we exhibit an AES-GCM ciphertext, including IV and 128-bit authentication tag, and distinct keys $K_0$ and $K_1$, so that decryption succeeds for both keys? What degree of control do we have ...
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Consequences of AES-GCM always encrypting the same plaintext

I am analysing an authentication protocol. In this protocol AES-GCM is used to encrypt part of the messages. Regarding the authentication protocol, I made the following observations: The plaintext ...
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How to prove that I am part of a list without revealing my identity?

Let's suppose and scenario like a secret voting scheme, at the ID verification step. Considerations: There is a public list of identities of people who are able to vote (ex, people who live in a ...
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What is Associated Data in AEAD?

I am trying to understand what is AEAD exactly. I am application developer not a cryptographer. I have been searching online for a while watched a bunch of Youtube videos, read through a couple of ...
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Number message limits of Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) per key

In https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-38d.pdf page 27, it is said that ...the total number of blocks of plaintext and AAD that are protected by invocations of the ...
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How does APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption work?

I am trying to understand the encryption and decryption process of the APE: APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography Full paper The Encryption what is exactly the <...
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Forge valid token with misuse of OTP key reuse

I'm new to OTP and received a challenge. Challenge Context: A server uses OTP to encrypt and decrypt authentication tokens. Misuse: The server always uses the same key. Objective: Forge a valid token ...
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Can I use the same key pair for authentication and Diffie-Hellman? [duplicate]

Assume Alice has a key pair $(A, a)$ and Bob has a key pair $(B, b)$, where $A = Ga$ and $B = Gb$. In general, the basic rule of crypto says that we should not use the same key for different ...
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What does the $e$ operation mean in cryptography research papers?

I read a cryptography scheme that it include the following operation: $$c= H(e(g_1,g_n)^t)$$ where H is a hash function. I need to know what the operation $e$ means.
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Forgery attack on Poly1305 when the key and nonce reused

Introduction: I've tried to find how reusing one-time key compromises itself but only found information that it breaks the encryption entirely, it is written everywhere. But since no methods to reuse ...
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Is fingerprint authentication meaningless if the server/client is closed source?

I'm talking about when two chat users want to verify their identities via public key fingerprints. If the Client app is closed source, and we cannot see what it is doing, isn't the Server able to play ...
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Do all AEAD implementations use symmetric key ciphers in practice?

Everything I've seen so far in modern implementations (the Linux Kernel AEAD API, JVM crypto provider (AES-GCM), RFC 8439, libsodium, etc) seems to imply that only symmetric key block ciphers are used ...
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Security of CCM using 8 byte MAC within TLS

In the Dutch "IT Security Guidelines for Transport Layer Security (TLS)" the ciphersuites using AES-128-CCM_8 (i.e. CCM with a 64 bit authentication tag) are considered "insufficient&...
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Can we say that password authentication contains registration phase, authentication phase and authenticated key exchange phase?

Authentication aims to validate the legitimate identity. The authenticated key exchange aims to establish a secure common session key. But can we say that password authentication scheme contains the ...
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Using HMAC with AES modes that do NOT require padding [closed]

I'm trying to use HMAC with AES modes that do not require any sort of padding. Although I am aware that modes like AES-GCM and ...

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