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Questions tagged [authenticated-encryption]

Combination of encryption and authentication in a way that ensures confidentiality and integrity.

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Cryptographic equivalent of family coat of arms

As a layman when it comes to cryptography, I have recently been asking myself if there was a cryptographic equivalent of a family code of arms. I'm thinking of something asymmetric, that is future ...
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45 views

Is it safe to use ECB mode this way, w/o duplicate blocks?

I wanna make my own "way" of encrypting separate messages. And I want it to have the least possible size overhead while being completely encrypted (hide msg counter). Here's my current idea: we ...
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Unix salt for passwords - length doesn't matter in offline dictionary attack?

Lets say an attacker has gained permanent access to the password file and mounts an offline dictionary attack. The passwords are stored as hash values in the file together with a salt values, ...
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1answer
115 views

Deterministic Authenticated Encryption with AES-OFB and HMAC

I have an encrypted column in a database that stores sensitive information. The existing encryption scheme is deterministic and a database index exists on the encrypted value to allow searching. I am ...
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2answers
107 views

What do NM-CPA, and NM-CCA mean?

When I've been researching authenticated encryption, the following terms keep showing up: NM-CPA NM-CCA ....without any definition as to what they mean. I've tried searching the web for their ...
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1answer
76 views

Guessing the key in AES256-GCM?

I assume that my case is weird but I've the following information: IV: 0x263e or 0x3e26 Auth tag: 0x25 AES256-GCM encrypted payload: 0x4eec96df534ade4c013a AES256-GCM decrypted payload: ...
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1answer
45 views

Does the AES-KW (Key Wrap Algorithm) perform authenticated encryption?

The RFC for AES-KW doesn't actually mention authentication, only integrity, where the unwrapping/decryption process should produce an identical IV of ...
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1answer
179 views

CAESAR finalists: Lightweight case (Ascon vs ACORN)

The Ascon cipher has been selected as the first choice in lightweight case and ACORN as the second. However according to Face-off between the CAESAR Lightweight Finalists: ACORN vs. Ascon paper, the ...
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1answer
61 views

Authenticated encryption and file data integrity

I've got a task to provide the integrity and an authenticated encryption for files in our application. I need an assurance if my way of thinking is correct. I can't use AES GCM, I have to stay with ...
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0answers
125 views

Key size, performance, and security tradeoffs for AES-GCM, CCM

AES can be used with 128, 192 or 256 bit keys and each one appears to have a performance vs security trade-off (What is the effect of the different AES key lengths?, What are the practical differences ...
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1answer
106 views

What is the purpose of an Authentication Tag in AEAD encryption schemes?

AEAD encryption schemes produce something referred to as an "authentication tag." What does this tag consist of, what is its purpose, and is the tag itself human-readable data such as a plaintext ...
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2answers
107 views

Does there exist a mode of operation that forces mac-then-decrypt?

Alice sends Bob a message using AES-GCM. Bob is a software developer with just enough cryptography knowledge to be dangerous. He wants to start processing data as soon as he receives it. He observes ...
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1answer
97 views

XTS mode of operation and authentication

I'm wondering if XTS is used (Random Access is needed) what the best solution for authentication is. If I wouldn't need random access, I would take AES-GCM or AES-CBC-HMAC but random access is a must. ...
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2answers
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Understanding ChaCha20-Poly1305 AEAD

In the AEAD scheme described in https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7539#section-2.8.1, the aad and cyphertext are padded to be a multiple of 16 bytes in length. Why is this necessary? Does it provide any ...
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1answer
82 views

AEAD using AES-CBC and MAC: how to order the input to the MAC

I'm writing code to provide an AEAD utility. It uses AES-256-CBC for encryption and SHA-512(key+data) truncated to 256 bits as the MAC. ...
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1answer
171 views

Do AEADs also authenticate the nonce?

I'd like to include an authenticated timestamp in my messages. I'm wondering if I can save a little space by putting the timestamp in the nonce. Concrete example: Let's say I'm using XChaCha20-...
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1answer
162 views

Symetric key encryption is not Authentication?

Is there any way to show CCA-secure symmetric-key encryption does not have to be an authenticated encryption? I know you can create a setup that isn't authentication, but how will you go about it?
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1answer
79 views

Disadvantage of the using a counter within plain text for encrypting with AES256 and authentication?

What if we use a counter within the plain text and then encrypt the plain text with aes 256 to encrypt & authenticate? For example: encryptAES(32bit_counter+plain_text_of_96bit); or encryptAES(...
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2answers
70 views

Using a hash of data instead of the full raw data for authenticated data in AES-GCM

I am serialising JSON objects, and would like to encrypt some of the values. I plan to do this with AES-GCM. I would also like to ensure the integrity of the overall object. The requirements are ...
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1answer
36 views

Verion of crypto_box() which doesn't allow the sender to decrypt previously sent messages

Libsodium's crypto_box() family of functions allow the sender to send messages using its public/private keypair knowing the receiver's public key, and allow the ...
3
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1answer
143 views

Are SSH key-pairs an example of a zero knowledge proof?

Quoting from source, authentication using SSH key pairs goes something like this: 1) The client begins by sending an ID for the key pair it would like to authenticate with to the server. 2) ...
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1answer
30 views

Are Authenticated Encryption ciphersuites supported in legacy TLS versions older than TLS 1.2?

I have read in a paper that Authenticated Encryption (by this I mean those that support GCM mode or ChaCha20 ciphers) are not supported in versions older than TLS 1.2? I could not confirm this as ...
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1answer
293 views

Why does TLS 1.3 support two CCM variants?

One of the important improvements introduced in TLS 1.3 is the pruning of the many previously available cipher suites to only five secure options (for symmetric ciphers), that are each supposed to ...
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3answers
404 views

In what cases might PRESENT be implemented as encryption-only?

In the paper, under section 4.1 Goals and environment of use we read: In applications that demand the most efficient use of space, the block cipher will often only be implemented as encryption-only. ...
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1answer
148 views

Is Strong MAC stronger than existential unforgeability?

Especially in the context of Encrypt-then-Authenticate.
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4answers
283 views

JWT Login Security

I am new to security and I am wondering if JWT is secure enough. From what I have read online the flow goes like this: Clients log in by sending their credentials to the identity provider. The ...
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Patent Status & Usability of AE Modes [closed]

Post Structure: Sources Cited Question & Details Before You Answer Useful Info From Comments Sources Cited: https://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2012/05/19/how-to-choose-authenticated-...
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1answer
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A feasible approach for AEAD on an ethernet link?

The setup is shortly this: There are two custom switches (think of an FPGA for example), both are handling 10-100 Gb/s orders of traffic from their outside facing interfaces. This is normal traffic. ...
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0answers
212 views

CPA-secure private-key encryption scheme that is unforgeable but is not CCA-secure

This is exercise with 4.26 in Katz and Lindell's introduction to cryptography 2nd ed. The question is: Show a CPA-secure private-key encryption scheme that is unforgeable but is not CCA-secure. ...
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1answer
67 views

Is there any way to track if a ciphertext has been decypted?

Just like the case of a box that has been sealed. We can detect if the box has been opened or not by looking at the seal. Is there any way in cryptography or any encryption scheme that allows this to ...
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1answer
54 views

Authenticated encryption vs end-end encryption

I am kind of new to crypto. can someone highlight the differences between authenticated encryption and End-to-End encryption
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1answer
150 views

Reason for 3 rounds ChaCha in ChaCha20Poly1305@openssh

OpenSSH uses a slightly different ChaCha20Poly1305 AEAD construct then the one proposed by A. Langley and others for TLS. The TLS version The openSSH version (and here) The openSSH version uses two ...
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1answer
96 views

GCM mode of operation with long-term keys

Cross-post: https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/q/41435/873 Regarding GCM, NIST specifies the following: The total number of invocations of the authenticated encryption function shall not exceed $2^...
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68 views

Re-using information from the first factor for the second factor

Is it safe to re-use my username and password as information for the 2nd-factor? For instance: the first factor is the username and password; the second factor is $H(H(username) \oplus H(password \| ...
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2answers
251 views

Is an AEAD the recommended method to add encryption + HMAC to a protocol?

Assuming you are dealing with a competent developer/team, and you are advising on adding security to their protocol. Also for the time being lets not worry about the key establishment and validating ...
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1answer
69 views

Encryption / Decryption method secure

I was wondering whether this encryption / decryption flow is very solid / secure. I encrypt the data using AES CBC 256 bit with an static IV. When the user logs in with his Firebase account (first ...
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0answers
114 views

XEX vs EME mode of operation

Two of the CAESAR finalists use XEX and EME mode of operations (COLM uses EME, OCB uses XEX). I did literature to summarize the main advantages / disadvantages but I could not find much. My question ...
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1answer
187 views

Is it safe to use unauthenticated AES CBC when encrypting random bytes?

I am studying an application with an AES crypto implementation that works that like the following: PBKDF2 is used with X iterations and SHA-256 to generate a 256-bit "master key" from a user-provided ...
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2answers
103 views

Why is release of unverified plaintext so Bad?

Lately I came across of release of unverified plaintext. I was told that this is a bad thing, but I don't really get why. Isn't unverified plaintext released just nonsense? How can this be attacked in ...
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What is the difference between verifying the hash value (MAC) and security provided by authenticated encryption?

I read this post Difference between MAC and Authenticated Encryption? but I'm still confusing the difference. Seems like MAC can guarantee both integrity and authenticity (tbh I dont know the ...
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3answers
240 views

Secure MAC and secure encryption schemes combined to form insecure Authenticated Encryption?

I'm reading up on Authenticated Encryption and can't really wrap my head around how a generally secure MAC and a generally secure encryption scheme can be combined into an insecure AE scheme, such as ...
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1answer
235 views

Is transporting a salt, IV, ciphertext and HMAC in an encrypted token an acceptable practice?

I’m porting over some crypto code from Mcrypt (deprecated) to OpenSSL. I’m following a process that a former employee implemented, which is as follows: Create a random salt for use in a PBKDF2 key ...
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1answer
74 views

Propagating CBC insecure Authenticated Encryption

why is Propagating CBC (PCBC) insecure for authenticated encryption? I received the hint that I should feed a message of length $n$ and a message of length $n-1$ to it, but I don't really get what the ...
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2answers
1k views

Are TLS 1.2 AES-CBC and AES-GCM Authenticated Encryption ciphersuites?

In the answer of the following post: Why was AES CBC removed in TLS 1.3?, I quote the following from the chosen answer: After the Lucky13 attack (a timing oracle caused by MAC-then-encrypt), it ...
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0answers
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What happens in the MonkeyWrap-Algorithm of KetjeV2 if the input is a single block?

I am currently implementing KetjeV2 in VHDL. I have a question concerning the MonkeyWrap-Algorithm that is used in KetjeV2. The function $wrap(A, B, l)$ is supposed to work as shown below, where $A$ ...
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1answer
168 views

AES-PMAC-SIV AE algorithm

AES-SIV is a very robust and safe algorithm but performance isn't great. AES-PMAC-SIV, should provide a great parallelization, increasing performance and ensuring the same robustness. Indications of ...
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2answers
91 views

Authentication scheme to protect against fake devices

I want two embedded devices (call them master and slave) to communicate with each other. For intellectual property protection, the master must reject fake slave devices (the other way around is a pre ...
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1answer
61 views

Distinct MAC and Key for AEAD?

I am implementing some of the algorithms in RFC 7518 and I noticed that AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 contains the following paragraph: The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the ...
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0answers
154 views

How to implement security - authenticity/confidentiality/integrity for 6/14 bits radio messages?

I just took over two radio systems (using 433Mhz) - one communicates with 6 bit messages, one with 14 bit messages. Both have a lots of transmitters and one receiver (and, yes bits not bytes). For ...
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1answer
111 views

6 Byte for HMAC in wireless system secure?

A wireless system has 8 byte payload and 6 byte for message authentication. Scheme: ...